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  1. Question

    answer the following questions. Imagine that you work in a prison as a correctional officer. Remember your post must be at least 300 words

    1. Which officer personality would you display and why?
    2. Which types of power would you utilize as an officer and why?
    3. Which correctional officer job assignment would you want and why?
    4. Which correctional staff issues would most affect you and why?

    Key Terms

    ROLES: The normal patterns of behavior expected of those holding particular social positions.
    STAFF ROLES: The patterns of behavior expected of correctional staff members in particular jobs.
    CUSTODIAL STAFF: Those staff members most directly involved in managing the inmate population.
    PROGRAM STAFF: Those staff members concerned with encouraging prisoners to participate in educational, vocational, and treatment programs.
    GAIN TIME: Time taken off an inmate’s sentence for participating in certain activities such as going to school, learning a trade, and working in prison.
    STRUCTURED CONFLICT: The tensions between prison staff members and inmates that arise out of the correctional setting.
    SUBCULTURE: The beliefs, values, behaviors, and material objects shared by a particular group of people within a larger society.
    STAFF SUBCULTURE: The beliefs, values, and behavior of staff. They differ greatly from those of the inmate subculture.
    CORRECTIONAL OFFICER PERSONALITIES: The distinctive personal characteristics of correctional officers including behavioral, emotional, and social traits.
    BLOCK OFFICERS: Those responsible for supervising inmates in housing areas.
    WORK DETAIL SUPERVISORS: Those who oversee the work of individual inmates and inmate work crews.
    INDUSTRIAL SHOP AND SCHOOL OFFICERS: Those who ensure efficient use of training and educational resources within the prison.
    YARD OFFICERS: Those who supervise inmates in the prison yard.
    ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICERS: Those who control keys and weapons and sometimes oversee visitation.

    Correctional Officer Personalities

    The merchant: Provides commodities to inmates, often in violation of institutional rules
    The turnkey: Unmotivated and bored, does little beyond the basic job requirements.
    The do-gooder: Reformer who is motivated by a personal agenda such as religious proselytizing.
    The climber: Diligent worker who respects the corrections profession and is focused on rapid professional advancement

    The reformer : Know-it-all who constantly complains and endlessly criticizes institutional policies, procedures, and rules

    Correctional Officers’ Power Bases

    1. Legitimate power: Derived by the virtue of position in the organization
    2. Coercive power: Based on the inmates’ belief that COs can and will punish disobedience.
    3. Reward power: COs’ ability to dispense both formal and informal rewards

    Gain time: Time taken off an inmate’s sentence for participating in certain activities.
    Expert power: Based on inmates’ perception that certain COs have valuable skills.
    Referent power: Based on the inmates’ respect for a particular fair and non-abusive CO.

    Correctional Officer Job Assignments
    1. Block Officers. Supervise inmates in housing areas Block Officers
    2. Work Detail Supervisors: Oversee the work of individual inmates and inmate work crews Work Detail Supervisors
    3. Industrial Shop and School Officer. Ensure efficient use of training and educa-onal resources within the prison Industrial Shop and School Officer.
    4. Yard Officers: Supervise inmates in the prison yard




Subject Nursing Pages 5 Style APA


Quantitative Methods of Inquiry

Most scientific inquiries are guided by logical positivism. This entails all knowledge being derived from logical inferences informed by direct observations. In quantitative methods of inquiry, the statistical approaches are essential in examining and presenting the patterns and relationships using numbers. This is done through descriptive or inferential statistics where probabilistic arguments are used to generalize the findings from samples to the populations of interests. This paper, therefore, examines the main methods of inquiry for quantitative research and demonstrate statistical analysis using SPSS.

Quantitative methods of inquiry are either descriptive, experimental, quasi-experimental, and correlation. In the experimental method of inquiry, it is used to evaluate the difference between classes or groups of subjects (Curtis et al., 2015). The main objective in this method is to isolate the researcher’s variable of interest which is the independent and manipulating the dependent to observe its impacts. The procedure is therefore facilitated by controlling the extraneous variables and allowing the researcher to observe the causal relationship between the different variables of interest. In experimental design, causality is tested. Common experimental designs include randomized, classic experimental, crossover, and nested.

There exist challenges with the traditional control approach especially in the social and clinical arena where the control for human subjects may not be permitted. This introduces the quasi-experimental method of inquiry where some of the control rigor is assumed. In this approach, the researcher employs empirical and systematic approach where the control group is not used or avoids assigning conditions to the subjects since an event has already occurred and cannot be manipulated (Cook, 2015). In this method, the causal statements become correlational arguments. The main challenge in this method is the difficulty in ascribing causality since there is no true experimental manipulation. The independent variable, in this case, is identified as the predictor. Quasi-experimental designs also test for causality and common examples include pre- and post-test, interrupted times-series, and post-test only.

Another quantitative method of inquiry is correlation. In this study, the researcher explores the relationship between variables. Here, an increase or decrease in one variable is evaluated if it causes an increase or decrease in the other variable. The main characteristic of this design is that there is no control and the researcher does not look for cause and effect thus in most cases, the data collection is observational (Curtis, Comiskey, & Dempsey, 2016). Further, there is no variable control. Main examples include descriptive correlation, model-testing, and predictive.

The descriptive quantitative design focuses on describing the current status of a phenomenon or variable. In this method, the hypothesis is not the initial aspect but is eventually developed once the data has been collected. Notably, data collection is mainly observational. In this design, there is no control or test for causality (Baker, 2017). Common descriptive designs include cross-sectional, comparative descriptive, and longitudinal.

SPSS Statistical Analysis

Mean, Median, and Mode of Discharges in 2014


Discharge Rates 
















a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest value is shown

Table 1: Mean, Mode, and Median of Discharges in 2014

In the above descriptive statistics, three aspects are defined including the mean, median, and mode. The number of discharges for the 31 states in 2014 can be summarized as demonstrated in table 1 above. Besides, the maximum and minimum values are presented as well as the summation of total discharges in that year.

Comparison of Discharges in 2010, 2012, and 2015


































a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest value is shown

Table 2: Discharge rates for 2010, 2012, and 2015.

As demonstrated in table 2 above, it is evident that discharge numbers have been reducing from 2010 to 2015. This is as depicted from the mean across the three years. In this case, the summation cannot be used to draw this conclusion since 2012 had more missing statistics. Comparing 2010 and 2015 in all the states, the number of discharges were high in 2010 (mean=776667.21) compared to 2015 (mean=610133.58).

Comparison of Discharges in Different Regions



North Western

South Western


South Eastern

North Eastern














Table 3: Discharge Rates in 2011 for Different Regions

Based on the descriptive statistics in table 3, it is shown that the discharge rates in 2011 were high in South Eastern, South Western, North Eastern, North Western, and Central States respectively. This conclusion is drawn from the available statistics obtained from https://hcup-us.ahrq.gov/db/state/siddist/siddist_discharge.jsp

            In summary, there are four main quantitative methods of inquiry which include descriptive, correlation, experimental, and quasi-experimental. These approaches are distinguished by control, tests for cause and effect, and data collection approaches. The above descriptive analysis of discharge numbers in various states demonstrates the use of SPSS in performing the evaluation based on the observational data for the different years. 


Baker, C. (2017). Quantitative research designs: Experimental, quasi-experimental, and descriptive. Retrieved from http://samples.jblearning.com/9781284101539/9781284101539_CH06_Drummond.pdf

Cook, T. D. (2015). Quasi‐experimental design. Wiley Encyclopedia of Management, 1-2.

Curtis, E. A., Comiskey, C., & Dempsey, O. (2016). Importance and use of correlational research. Nurse researcher23(6).

Curtis, M. J., Bond, R. A., Spina, D., Ahluwalia, A., Alexander, S. P., Giembycz, M. A., … & Lawrence, A. J. (2015). Experimental design and analysis and their reporting: new guidance for publication in BJP. British journal of pharmacology172(14), 3461-3471.




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