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    Assignment week 3



Subject Research Methodology Pages 4 Style APA


Quantitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations

A valid research should contain various sections, which are mandatory minimums. These include the background of the study, research methodology, result/findings, ethical considerations, and conclusion based on the results (Burns & Grove, 2011). Any quantitative research articles, which does not contain these elements cannot be said to meet the threshold for a good research. In the background of the study, the clinical problem that resulted in research is identified while the methodology provides methods deployed in providing appropriate responses to the research questions. The question addressed in the first assignment is how Empathic Tendency Scale (ETS) nurse burnout/turnover impact patient’s satisfaction (Meng et al., 2015). The articles, which were used in addressing this PICOT question will be critiqued. Various sections which will be looked into are the background of the study, methodology, findings, ethical considerations, and conclusion.

Background of Study

A research article should identify the research problem as well as the clinical problem, which necessitated the study to be conducted. Additionally, according to Burns & Grove (2011), various ways in which the authors established the significance of the study should be stated in the research background. Purpose of the survey should also be contained in this section of a research article as well as research questions. The background to the study of the materials used is the increasing cases of burnout occasioned by the increased workload, which results in an inadequate job performance, dismissed a sense of purpose, and noncompliance with the vision of an organization. The clinical problem, in this case, is that nurses become absent and are, therefore, likely to adversely affect the quality of care (Stimpfel et al., 2016). The significance of the study as stated in the articles is to provide ways in which burnout can be avoided and hence ensure increased satisfaction scores for the patients. However, the articles did not state the research questions. However, the purpose of the study was related to the reported problem (Aiken et al., 2002). As such, the study background in the article was stated and related to study purpose.

Method of Study

In the methodology section, the authors should identify the risks as well as the benefits that the study would have to the audience. Additionally, it is critical that the consent of the participants is obtained before they are allowed to participate in the study. Moreover, the participation should be voluntary and not by any force or any coercion (Burns & Grove, 2011). The agency, which conducted the study, should seek approval from the Institutional Review Board, which is the agency responsible for the accreditation of the research. Various variables- both dependent and independent should be stated. Methods of data collection should be clear and rationale for their use. The articles provided the research methodology as well as how data was collected. However, some of the articles did not state justifications for their use of the data collection methods (Meng et al., 2015). Additionally, no resource sought authorization from the Institutional Review Board. However, consent of the participants was sought before the start of the study. As such, each of the participants participated in the study voluntarily. In some of the articles, it is hard to identify the dependent and independent variables, as they are not stated explicitly (Kristina Ericksen, 2015).

Results of Study

In the results/findings section of a study, the research should provide an interpretation of the findings. Additionally, the results should actually reflect reality and thereby increase the confidence of the audience. Researchers should use this section to state any limitations of the study. The findings ought to be presented logically. The most important part is for the authors to say the implications of the findings on nursing practice and whether the results can be generalized. Finally, suggestions for further research should be indicated. In the articles used, the findings that the promotion of job satisfaction is key to preventing staff burnout is logically presented. The results reflect the reality in healthcare facilities and nursing practice and can as such be believed (Stimpfel et al., 2016). Additionally, areas for further research have clearly been stated. The authors have also provided the research limitations, which form the ground for further studies. It is easy for the audience to evaluate the findings and establish if they reflect the reality (Kristina Ericksen, 2015). Based on those factors, the methodology section has been adequately presented by the authors.

Ethical Considerations

Ethics are the moral considerations that researchers should focus on during their course of research. Some of the ethical considerations in research include seeking approval from the institutional review board and the protection of the privacy of the participants. (Burns & Grove, 2011). Additionally, considerations should be made concerning any treatment group or lack of it. In the articles under evaluation, there has been no indication that approval was sought from the Institutional Review Board. Most of the authors went ahead with their researchers without any approval. However, the privacy of the patients who participated in the study was guaranteed. Before data were collected, the patients were informed that their data would not be revealed to any unauthorized persons and will only be used for research purposes (Amy et al., 2010). As such, they were sure that unauthorized persons could not access their data.


The conclusion section should provide an opportunity for the researchers to restate their thesis statement as well as any congruity with the findings. Additionally, they should leave a lasting impression on the audience as well as the key points that should be taken away from the study. A critical appraisal of the research findings and their application to nursing practice should be a key part of the conclusion section of a research article. The final part should be the summary of the knowledge obtained from the study. The articles examined have provided a congruent conclusion, which restates the thesis statement and shows whether the research has supported or defined the research hypothesis (Aiken et al., 2002). Additionally, the applicability of the findings of the study to nursing practice is stated in the articles. However, most of the articles do not indicate the knowledge obtained from the research.

In conclusion, effective research articles should have a background study, which states the problem and purpose as well as methodology, ethical consideration, and conclusion. From the articles analyzed, most have stated the research problem, which is staff burnout as well as its effect in nursing practice. Additionally, their methodologies have stated data collection methods, however; no justification has been provided for the choice of those methods. The researchers have not stated the ethical considerations or approval from the Institutional Review Board. However, the privacy of the patients’ information has been guaranteed. The conclusion sections have restated thesis statements and provided a summary of the findings and their applicability to nursing practice. However, a summary of knowledge obtained from the study is not contained in most of the articles.(2017) study employed, there are very little room for generalizing the study’s findings.  


Aiken LH, Clarke SP, Sloane DM, Sochalski J, Silber JH,. (2002). Hospital Nurse Staffing and Patient Mortality, Nurse Burnout, and Job Dissatisfaction. JAMA.;288(16):1987–1993. doi:10.1001/jama.288.16.1987

 Amy Witkoski Stimpfel, Douglas M. Sloane, Matthew D. McHugh, and Linda H. Aiken (2010) Hospitals Known for Nursing Excellence Associated with Better Hospital Experience for Patients

Burns, N., & Grove, S. (2011). Understanding nursing research (5th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

Kristina Ericksen (2015). Nursing Burnout: Why it Happens & What to Do About It Retrieved from http://www.rasmussen.edu/degrees/nursing

Meng, R., Luo, Y., Liu, B., Hu, Y., & Yu, C. (2015). The Nurses’ Well-Being Index and Factors Influencing This Index among Nurses in Central China: A Cross-Sectional Study. PLoS ONE, 10(12), e0144414. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144414

Stimpfel, A. W., Sloane, D. M., McHugh, M. D., & Aiken, L. H. (2016). Hospitals Known for Nursing Excellence Associated with Better Hospital Experience for Patients. Health Services Research, 51(3), 1120–1134. http://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6773.12357


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