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  1. Research Ethics


    What are the Research Ethics?


Subject Ethics Pages 3 Style APA


Research Ethics

Research ethics govern the standards of conduct for all scientific researchers hence it is important to strictly adhere to the ethical principles to protect dignity, rights, and welfare of research participants. It is important to note that the same principles and guidelines that are employed to conduct clinical should be applied in educational research (Navalta et al., 2019).  However, I feel that the law and rules should be stringiest when human subjects are involved. In this case, there is a risk/benefit ration that calls for the consent of the participants. The risk should be very low; however, even if there is no benefit, the study should not cause any harm as indicated in principles of ethics.

During the study about the Guatemala sexually transmitted disease it is important to note that participants were not aware of the ongoing study. Their consents were not sought as per the requirement of research ethics which states that the participants should be educated about the research and its purpose.  At the end of the study, doctors infected prostitutes, soldiers, prisoners, and mental patients with syphilis and other sexually transmitted diseases, the experiment resulted in at least 83 deaths. According to Fisher et al. (2018), the participants should also be informed of the likelihood risks or advantages of being part of the study, something that did not happen in this case.

HIPAA protects the right of the participants and their personal record hence is applied in clinical practice during the research conducting process. It advocates that participant’s right should not be violated.  On the other hand, Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) govern the access to educational records and information by the public entities like potential employers, publicly funded educational institutions, and foreign governments of learners. It has little about conducting especially on human subjects.



Fisher, A. J., Medaglia, J. D., & Jeronimus, B. F. (2018). Lack of group-to-individual generalizability is a threat to human subjects research. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences115(27), E6106-E6115.

Navalta, J. W., Stone, W. J., & Lyons, T. S. (2019). Ethical issues relating to scientific discovery in exercise science. International Journal of Exercise Science12(1), 1.















Appendix A:

Communication Plan for an Inpatient Unit to Evaluate the Impact of Transformational Leadership Style Compared to Other Leader Styles such as Bureaucratic and Laissez-Faire Leadership in Nurse Engagement, Retention, and Team Member Satisfaction Over the Course of One Year

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