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Note: There are four assignments in this online course. Totally 17 pages, due within 15 days. I attached some sample papers to give you an idea, do not copy it.


Pls send me four different documents for different assignments.


Resource 1: Gramsci, Antonio. “Hegemony.” Literary Theory: An Anthology.

Resource 2: Turner, Graeme. British Cultural Studies: An Introduction

Resource 3: https://books.google.ca/books?id=UrqMFMdNNbwC&pg=PT9&lpg=PT9&dq=Bennett,+Tony,+Lawrence+Grossberg+and+Meaghan+Morris.+New+Keywords:+A+Revised+Vocabulary+of+Culture+and+Society.+Oxford:+Blackwell+Publishing,+2005&source=bl&ots=3YRVjZ8jt5&sig=TvFcUIjFd8nhLZxFk1xtcE5GhTc&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjZkr2lrafUAhXmyoMKHaMgD2oQ6AEIVTAH#v=onepage&q=Bennett%2C%20Tony%2C%20Lawrence%20Grossberg%20and%20Meaghan%20Morris.%20New%20Keywords%3A%20A%20Revised%20Vocabulary%20of%20Culture%20and%20Society.%20Oxford%3A%20Blackwell%20Publishing%2C%202005&f=false


Assignment 1: short essay

Answer all questions in each of Parts 1, 2 and 3 for a total of 10 responses.
Unless otherwise indicated, each response should comprise no more than three sentences.



  1. According to Turner, how does de Saussure’s linguistic theory differ from our common sense understanding of language?
  2. Why does Turner argue that semiotics has become “part of the vocabulary of cultural studies” (16)?
  3. How does Turner’s traditional definition of Marxism differ from the “Marxism which informs the cultural studies” (18)?
  4. What are some examples of “ideological state apparatuses,” and why did early cultural studies scholars consider them to be important?
  5. In one paragraph of no more than 100 words, describe the debate between structuralism and culturalism, and explain why Gramsci’s hegemony theory is useful in bridging the gap between the two.


  1. Why does Turner state that “meanings generated around the figure of Hamid Karzai within Western media . . . have little to do with a material Hamid Karzai you could call on the phone”(26)?
  2. According to Turner, how do “the headlines, captions and photos” of Sally Jackson’s article represent Karzai to her readers? What codes and discourses are used to frame this representation?
  3. What does Turner claim to be the “purpose or ideological function” of such representations in his semiotic analysis of the Jackson article?



  1. What was the “culture and civilization tradition” in Britain, and why was it critical of postwar “American style” popular culture?
  2. Turner points out that “key figures [Raymond Williams, et al.] in the next generation of cultural criticism in Britain” were different from their predecessors (such as Arnold, Leavis and T. S. Eliot) (35). What were these differences, and why does Turner claim they existed?


The reference is limit to resource 1, resource 2 and resource 3.

2 pages, double space, MLA format.



Assignment 2: Essay

Summarize and comment critically on the so-called “mass culture/popular culture” debate in cultural studies.


Be sure to identify the underlying theoretical assumptions that inform the two sides of the argument, and present your own conclusions about the perspective you believe to be the most convincing and explain why.


The reference is limit to resource 1, resource 2 and resource 3.

4 pages, double space, MLA format.



Assignment 3: Short Essay

Choose a media representation and identify how it constructs its audience. Use Graeme Turner’s analysis of Sarah Jackson’s “Hamid Karzai portrayal” as an exemplar.

Your essay should address the following three areas:

  • What do you believe the “preferred reading” will likely be, i.e., what kinds of roles/subject positions are viewers/listeners/readers expected to assume? what conclusions does the preferred reading encourage us to form about the topic represented?
  • Can you think of one or more alternative interpretations that could be based on the same representation? Provide examples.
  • Discuss some of the characteristics of both representations (texts) and audiences (readers) that make plural interpretations not only possible, but also probable.


Pls take a look at the example (not very good example, but can give you an idea). Make sure you avoid all the errors made by the example.

4 pages, double space, MLA format.



Assignment 4: Term Paper

In the forty odd years since the founding of the Birmingham Centre, the field of Cultural Studies has experienced a number of changes. Describe some of the changes that have had an impact on Cultural Studies, and identify some important contemporary issues that Cultural Studies will need to address in order to remain relevant in the twenty-first century.


Make sure you answer all the questions listed in the requirement and also use applicable references. The professor will check the reference with the page number carefully.


7 pages, double space, MLA format 




Subject Essay Writing Pages 6 Style APA




Part 1

1). Language is one of the most crucial concepts that underpin the understanding of other cultural systems. The common-sense perception of the role of language considers language as a system of naming things in which objects are assigned names that are communicated to others and ultimately get to usage. However, the de Saussure’s linguistic theory considers language as a mechanism through which individuals organize and construct reality. Notably, according to Turner (10-11) the difference between our common-sense understanding of language and the de Saussure’s linguistic theory is that whereas the common–sense understanding of language considers it as inherent system of naming things, the de Saussure’s linguistic theory upholds the idea that a word has no inherent or natural connection with its meaning and therefore language is a construction of reality that is culturally specific.


2). According to Turner (16), the only reason why semiotics has become “part of the vocabulary of cultural studies” is because it “supplies us with a terminology and a conceptual frame that enables

the analysis of non-linguistic signs.” As such, it presents as a useful methodology for analyzing non-linguistic signs such as the film and television. Indeed, Turner notes that the value of semiotics is underpinned by the ability of the methodology to deal with not only image and sound but also their interrelation (16).


3). The difference between Turner’s traditional definition of Marxism and the Marxism that informs cultural studies is that, whereas Turner’s traditional definition presents culture as part of the society’s ‘superstructure’ and as such simply determined by the economic and industrial base, the Marxism that informs cultural studies posits that culture is not simply determined by economic forces but rather, the competition of several determining forces such as economic, political and cultural forces generate conflicts with each other that result in the complex unity of society (18).


4). Some of the examples of ideological state apparatuses include the educational system, the media, the political system and the legal system (19). Notably, the early cultural studies scholars found these ideological state apparatuses as they helped in establishing and legitimating social norms thereby helping to achieve ideological ends.

5). The debate between culturalism and structuralism revolves around ideological production of cultural meanings and the power of human agency against ideology and history. In this debate, the structuralists argue that forms and structures are the key to understanding cultural meanings as they can be understood and generalized (23).  On the other hand, the culturalists posit that the power of human agency is central to determining both ideology and history by arguing that ideology can be resisted by human agency and that history can be influenced by radical individual effort. Notably, the gap between structuralism and culturalism can be bridged by the Gramsci’s hegemony theory that highlights how change is built in the system by incorporating the power of human agent to resist change within generalized structure for producing ideology (24).

Part 2

1). In exploring the meanings generated, within Western media, around the figure of Hamid Karzai, Turner uses cultural studies principles whereby he highlights the meaning around this figure through cultural construction of his identity (26). Consequently, Turner asserts that the meanings around Hamid Karzai “have little to do with a material Hamid Karzai you could call on the phone” because cultural, historical and political forces that are involved around Hamid Karzai are the only determinants for meaning-creation whereas material Hamid Karzai cannot generate meanings that attract the international attention (26).


2). According to Turner, Sally Jackson’s article contained headlines, captions, and photos that presented Hamid Karzai as an international political icon with whom the West can work (26). In framing this representation, Sally Jackson represents Karzai through codes and discourses of celebrity and politics (27).


3). Turner claims that such representations served the purpose or ideological function of creating an impression of Karzai having been incorporated into the value system of the West and therefore foreign but not a threat to the West (28-31). This is suggested by the presentation of his dressing code as a combination of traditional and Western apparel as well as framing his photograph by the Stars and Stripes all of which serves to create an impressing of his close proximity to Americans (28-31).

Part 3

1). The culture and civilization tradition in Britain, according to Turner, was basically concerned with the development of popular culture due to industrialization accelerated by expansion of  literacy and democracy and the subsequent decline of more folk cultures (34).  The culture and civilization tradition was critical for postwar “American style” popular culture because it radically extended the purchase of mass culture through its response to the twentieth-century technologies that significantly facilitated the mass distribution of cultural forms (34).


2). The difference between Raymond Williams et al. and their predecessors, Arnold et al., is grounded in the fact that the former were middle class. Notably, Arnold et al. thrived on elitism to condemn mass culture as members of the upper (34). However, the popular culture became more apparent due to increased access to cultural studies by the general population as a result of the postwar democratization of education.



Turner, Graeme. British Cultural Studies: An Introduction. London: Routledge, 2003.

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