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    Please answer each question below in a short essay of approximately one page (approximately 250-400 words). Each essay should consider the question(s) and should pull from the course readings, as well as your own experiences and opinions, if applicable. Show me that you’ve really thought about your topic and that you have a full understanding of this issue. Your essay should have both an introduction (with a thesis statement that clearly states your argument) and a conclusion.

    1. Discuss the differences and similarities between race and ethnicity and give examples of each. Then, think about how you construct your own sense of ethnic identity and write about the ethnic work you engage in in your own life. Give an example or story to back up your analysis of your own ethnic work.

    2. The terms “sex” and “gender” mean two different things. Explain the difference between these two concepts. Although they are distinctly different terms, why do people use them interchangeably? Finally, give examples of how you see gender socialization in your own life and then tie those examples back to the differentiation between “sex” and “gender.”


Subject Essay Writing Pages 6 Style APA


Similarities and differences between Race and Ethnicity

The social makeup of the world has arguably been made up and divided across race and ethnicity. Success and subsequent failure of individuals in a given society is at times blamed on the race and ethnicity for example, crime in the United States is more often than not blamed on the blacks and the comparison is not limited to the evils in the society but include areas such as academics and productivity. Yasuhiro Nakasome, a onetime Japanese prime minister, controversially stated that the average Japanese intellectual standard is higher than the average Americans (Bhopal 4). This he argued was as a result of Hispanics and the Blacks in America.  Even though race and ethnicity are related aspects in the human and social setup, they mean different things and affect the way people live and interact within a society greatly.

One of the major differences between race and ethnicity is the fact that while one can have a number of ethnic affiliations, the race is always unitary. While race is in reference to the biological make up of an individual such as the skin color, eye color and bone structure, ethnicity refers to the cultural aspects like ancestry, language and ancestry. Regarding similarities between the two, they are both a creation of the society. They exist in virtual sense and are not tangible in a physical sense.

            Ethnic identity is the degree to which an individual would identify him or herself to an ethnic group. It influences the individuals thinking, behavior, perceptions and reactions. It is what forms one’s heritage. It is constructed by living and behaving in a peculiar way that is unique to a specific group (Van den Berghes & Pierre 8). My ethnic work is fishing; this is because my ethnic background is with the fishing community. The fishing is communal in nature; the people organize themselves and share the catch at the end of the session. It is usually done at night laying the nets and later on retrieving the catch to the shore. The bulk of the catch is sold in the local market while the rest is consumed by the community.

                     Race and ethnicity are but a creation of societies we live in, they were in the past used to define boundaries and limit interaction especially during the colonial rule in Africa, and the two have also been used to define productivity with a few groups being deemed more productive a factor that influences job creation. The two terms though related are different and mean different things. The two should not be used to divide and discriminate people but rather spur growth and embrace the difference and the uniqueness of each group (Pitts 619).








Works Cited

Bhopal, Raj. “Glossary of terms relating to ethnicity and race: for reflection and debate.” Journal of epidemiology and community health 58.6 (2004): 441-445.

Pitts, David W. “Diversity, representation, and performance: Evidence about race and ethnicity in public organizations.” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 15.4 (2005): 615-631.

Van den Berghe, Pierre L. “Race and ethnicity: a sociobiological perspective.” Ethnic and racial studies 1.4 (1978): 401-411.











Sex and Gender

            The terms sex and gender have always been used interchangeably with limited regard to the real meaning of the two terms. The terms though related posses a different meaning in the society. Whereas sex         is in reference to the difference in the biological make up and differences between men and women for example the difference in the reproductive organs, gender has its inclination to the behaviors, attitudes and culturally designed ways that showcases the differences between men and women in the society. Gender is how the society trains the two sexes to behave and the roles they play in their interaction. This difference is what defines a society.

            Human beings just like other animals are sexually dimorphobic. One of the major differences between sex and gender is the fact that sex is biologically influenced and one is born either male or female, sex is difficult to change as compared to gender, this is because gender is socially influenced. Gender roles are gained as people interact in their social setup. Each society has expectations of how the two sexes should carry themselves out along with the roles expected of each sex. Sex can also be termed as classification of persons at birth as either male or female based on their bodily traits such as the genitalia and hormones among other parts (Archer & Lloyd 8- 16). Gender on the other hand can be said to be an individual’s sense of being a man or a woman.

            The two terms though different have constantly been used because, people tend to align sex with gender and end up referring to sex as gender and vice versa. The fact that gender is socially created does not have a central source of reference makes it easy and a viable option for people to use sex in place of gender. Sex on the other hand is commonly used and has since embedded itself in the society as it is taught in schools and people can relate to it. Gender is less common and mostly associated with discrimination especially on the women.

Gender socialization is the tendency of the different sexes to learn and conform to the societal expectations associated with the specific sex. For example, men are seen as masculine and the complex tasks that require stamina are believed to be designed for them while the home management roles and child upbringing are seen as feminine roles and befit the women (Lips 11). Gender socialization is widely spread with the father figure more often than not given the role of the bread winner and provider of the basic needs in the family. The father is expected to work hard and ensure security; food and shelter are available to his family. The woman on the other hand is supposed to manage the house, cook clean and raise the children in line with the society’s expectations (Unger 3). This is also depicted with the toys made available to the children, whereas the boys would be given cars and much more mechanical toys, girls will be given dolls depicting what is expected from them.

           In conclusion, sex and gender are closely related terms and one is often used to mean the other, however they are different and mean different things. Sex Is more physically inclined as it refers to the genetically make up of an individual, gender on the other hand is the roles designed for the two groups that make that define sex. Gender socialization designs the way individuals from the two sexes relate and what is expected of them.




Archer, John, and Barbara Lloyd. Sex and gender. Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Lips, Hilary M. Sex & gender: An introduction. Mayfield Publishing Co, 2001.

Unger, Rick. K. Toward a redefinition of sex and gender. American Psychologist, 34(11), (1979): 1085.


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