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LATE POLICY: Assignments are due at the beginning of class on the date assigned. Essays will

NOT be accepted electronically without prior agreement. NO assignments will be

accepted after the due date. Extensions are available ONLY for medical or other

emergencies. Proper documentation will be required.


LENGTH POLICY: Assignments not meeting the minimum expected length WILL NOT be read or

graded; e.g., a 3-4 page paper must be at least 3 full pages of text, excluding

works cited.


Assignment 1


DUE DATE: June 28th

LENGTH: 3-4 double-spaced pages with 1” margins in Times New Roman 12

VALUE: 15%

INSTRUCTIONS: Students will submit an analysis of Gilman’s “The Yellow Wall Paper” that argues

the superior importance to Gilman’s message of social discontent of one of the key elements of prose

fiction as discussed in the “elements of fiction” lecture/pdf (plot, point of view, character, setting,

style/voice/tone). Choose what you consider to be the most persuasive element and explain how the

story uses it to get Gilman’s theme across to us. You should use direct examples from the story (i.e.

specific quotations) to help your case. The paper should be structured with a thesis in the introduction

that is proven in subsequent body paragraphs with a summary conclusion to close it out. The short

story must be documented according to MLA guidelines as explained in the following website:


(Remember that the paper must have an argument; so whatever element you decide on, be sure that

you are not simply describing its existence in the story, but are explaining how it furthers the story’s

statement of social dissatisfaction. A discussion of setting, for example, cannot simply describe

Gilman’s use of claustrophobic places; rather, it must demonstrate how that choice of setting helps

define her disgust at human society.)


Assignment 2


DUE DATE: July 12th

LENGTH: 3-4 pages

VALUE: 15%

INSTRUCTIONS: Read David Wyche’s article “Letting the air into a relationship: Metaphorical

Abortion in ‘Hills Like White Elephants’” (available from the Library’s SEARCH+ function). Then

complete a source summary (as outlined in the “managing evidence” lecture/pdf) that details the

article’s subject, thesis, main ideas, development of ideas, and types of evidence (listing as many

of the last two as possible). Then briefly explain whether the article is convincing and why or

why not.


Assignment 3


DUE DATE: July 19th

LENGTH: 1-2 pages single-spaced pages with 1” margins in Times New Roman 12

VALUE: 15%

INSTRUCTIONS: Students will create a preliminary formal outline of their research essay based on

one of the topics provided below, following the methods described in the “outlines & drafts”

lecture/pdf. The outline should be laid out according to the guidelines provided and will form the

backbone of the completed research essay discussed below.

Assignment 4


DUE DATE: July 31st

LENGTH: 5-7 double-spaced pages with 1” margins in Times New Roman 12

VALUE: 25 %

INSTRUCTIONS: Write a formal argumentative essay on one of the topics below, using proper essay

style and format as discussed in lecture. The essay will be evaluated on its ability to establish a claim,

to support that claim using evidence from the primary text and from academic sources relating to that

text, to present the claim in proper grammar and style, and to offer information in a technically accurate

way (i.e. to comply with the rules and limitations described above and below).

RESEARCH: Quote or paraphrase within the text of your essay from a MINIMUM of two (2)

appropriate scholarly sources pertaining to your topic, author, or work. Supplemental information on

researching for literature courses can be found in the English Department handbook, available here:

http://arts.uottawa.ca/english/sites/arts.uottawa.ca.english/files/style_guide_2011.pdf. ALL

sources must be documented according to MLA guidelines. Consult the following site for more

detailed information on pertinent MLA rules and regulations:

https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/1/. As stated in the course outline, plagiarism will not

be tolerated in papers. All work must be the student’s own, created for this course specifically. Any

and all use of other people’s intellectual property must be accurately documented in the manner

explained in the above website. Be certain you understand what constitutes plagiarism, and learn to

avoid it. For discussion of plagiarism and use of sources, consult the following website:




  1. What, in your opinion, is the greatest human failing as far as Shirley Jackson is concerned, and

how is it demonstrated in “The Lottery”?

  1. We usually think of fairy tales as the vision of a world better than our own, but Lawrence uses a

fairy-tale style to show us unattractive people and ideas in “The Rocking Horse Winner.” Why?


  1. If fiction is supposed to appeal to our ethical nature in Atwood’s opinion, what is the happy

ending, or moral, we are being asked to look for and help society attain in “Happy Endings”?

  1. Does Watchmen argue for the costumed superhero as a positive or a negative motivator for

human betterment as expressed through Moore’s story and Gibbons’s art? In other words, do

the depictions of the main characters encourage or discourage our emulation of their actions

and attitudes?

  1. Create a topic of your own choosing based on one or more of the texts from the course. (Topics

must be approved by me via email NO LATER THAN July 24





Subject Essay Writing Pages 7 Style APA


Source Summary

Profiling of a source review encompasses thorough reading of an article, identification of the subject, theme, and the main ideas. Additionally, it is critical to establish various ways in which evidence and types of evidence have been developed, and which have been presented. This paper provides a source summary of David Wyche’s article titled “Letting the air into a relationship: Metaphorical Abortion in ‘Hills like White Elephants.”


The purpose of this article is to present various analyses from different individuals as to whether the Jig will carry a pregnancy or will figuratively abort, and hence lead to termination of the relationship between the Jig and the American.

Thesis and Main Ideas

The author’s argument is that whereas Ernest Hemingway’s story displays abortion as a metaphor, the biographical evidence presented by other authors provides additional support. One of the main ideas is that there is no agreement as to the fate of the unborn baby as some of the individuals have concluded that there was an abortion while others do not agree. Secondly, the outcome of the love affair between the jig and the American cannot be establishedconsidering that some people view the abortion as the prerequisite for the relationship (Wyche, 2002). Although the arguments presented on whether the jig will abort do not rely on the metaphorical meaning of pregnancy, the concept of abortion has been figuratively used.

Development of Ideas

The author provides various biographical accounts of the interpretation of abortion as well as the different views on whether the pregnancy was kept or an abortion occurred and the resultant effect of this on the relationship between the Jig and the American. Hemingway was concerned that as his first marriage was broken because of the birth of his first son, then the same would happen if the Jig gave birth. As such, he was adamant that the abortion should be done to avoid their relationship breaking. The author develops the ideas through stating various narratives and biographies of the individuals in the story. Additionally, numerous anecdotes have been used in the quest to support the key aspects of this story, which have been presented. For instance, Hemingway states that “I am too young to be father” showing that he was not ready for the baby (Wyche 65). Additionally, the various processes that Hemingway underwent have been described. For instance, Kenneth Lynns argues that the need for abortion arises from Hemingway’s belief that “the birth of his first born son-John Hardley Nicanor, nicknamed Bumby-caused the collapse of his first marriage” (Wyche 64).

Types of Evidence

Various types of evidence have been used to support the main ideas developed by the author. One of the types is the use of examples. The author presents examples of the biographical influences on the concept of abortion as a metaphor. One of the examples he gives includes Rober Fleming who stated that the idea of abortion has “already been strewn with the bodies of too many Hemingway critics” (Wyche 64). Additionally, the example of biography by Paul Smith has been presented with the argument that “…speculation on the story’s biographical sources is more than plentiful” (Wyche 66).Other examples given are those of the various arguments and conversations exchanged between the Jig and the American as to whether they should abort or not. Various examples of the excerpts from the conversations between the Jig and the American have been presented in the support of the idea that the pregnancy was a metaphor whereas abortion was literally used throughout the narrative.

The second type of evidence, which the author has vividly used, is that of reference to authorities. Specifically, various texts and phrases have been lifted out of other sources to support the ideas presented in the analysis. Some of the ideas have been lifted from Hemingway’s primary source while others have been taken from other secondary sources. For instance, on the fate of Jig’s unborn baby, Obrien has been quoted as seeing the outcome of the journey of the couple as both “bleak and infertile” (Wyche 56). Additionally, Kenneth Johnson views the cloud shadow as “foreshadowing the death of her unborn baby” (Wyche 57). Various views of protagonists on the outcome of the relationship between the Jig and Hemingway have been taken from secondary sources. For instance, according to Wyche “their relationship will be radically altered, perhaps destroyed, if she goes through with abortion” (57). Other authors such as Justice see “their previous relationship as having been ruined” (Wyche 62). These quotes and paraphrases from secondary sources are just but the types of evidence, which have been presentedin support of the main idea.

A narrative detail has been used in support of the main idea as the author narrates how the Jig and the American will end the relationship if one of them gives in to the ideas of the other. For instance, the author describes that “If Jig gives in to her lover’s wishes, their lives cannot, as she well knows, be the same as before” (Wyche 57). Additionally, the various journeys that the Jig and the American took have been well narrated as well as the emotional exchanges, which they used. The aim of such narrations was to support the idea that the concept of abortion does not have an absolute meaning as to what it referred to and the effects it had on the relationship between the two. Finally, analogies and allusions have been used in the manner in which abortion has been presented, for instance, the shadow of the cloud is shown to mean “how little communication exists between herself (Jig) and her companion (the American)” (Wyche 67). Such types of evidence shave been critical in supporting the argument that the idea of abortion as a metaphor has not only been supported by Hemingway, but also by the biographies of other authors.

The article is convincing in the way it offers a broad range of evidence in support of the main idea. Specifically, the fact that the author has used more than three different types of evidence including narratives, quotations and paraphrases, secondary sources, and examples are a demonstration of how convincing the article is on the idea of abortion as a metaphor. Notably, the measure of how compelling an article is based on the ability of the author to provide conclusive evidence which supports his/her position. As a result, the fact that evidence has been produced throughout the text of the article makes it not only convincing, but also conclusive on the matter being presented. Indeed, the intermix of the various types of evidence makes the assertions and ideas raised by the author supported adequately and hence more convincing.






Wyche, D. (2002). Letting the Air into a Relationship: Metaphorical Abortion in ‘Hill White Elephants’. The Hemingway Review, 22(1), 56-71.




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