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  1. Study the steps of the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)


    • Study the steps of the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) as presented in the Resources. • Reflect on your own healthcare organization and consider any steps your healthcare organization goes through when purchasing and implementing a new health information technology system.
    • Consider what a nurse might contribute to decisions made at each stage of the SDLC when planning for new health information technology.

    1. Write a description of what you believe to be the consequences of a healthcare organization not involving nurses in each stage of the SDLC when purchasing and implementing a new health information technology system.
    2. Provide specific examples of potential issues at each stage of the SDLC and explain how the inclusion of nurses may help address these issues.
    3. Then, explain whether you had any input in the selection and planning of new health information technology systems in your nursing practice or healthcare organization and explain potential impacts of being included or not in the decision-making process. Be specific and provide examples.


Subject Nursing Pages 6 Style APA




The process of developing, implementing and evaluating a health information technology system is a very rigorous process. In most cases, it is very overwhelming if not properly executed. Thus, the system development life cycle (SDLC) always provide an organisation or a business with a holistic framework to develop and deliver effective and efficient information systems.

Factors like technological advancements, legal and economic environments, competition, marketing changes, finance, and human resources etc influence an organisation’s operations. These dynamic factors will make an organisation to upgrade the modus operandi to keep being productive and profitable. The Systems development life cycle by definition is a five- stage information technology design and development.

These stages include analysis, design implementation, evaluation, and maintenance.

To successfully implement any new system, for example, in our healthcare facility: upgrading to electronic health information technology, the extent to which the stakeholders this case, nurses are engaged and trained throughout the systems lifecycle is vital for either failure or success of the change.

The purpose of this paper is to look at the inclusion of nurses in the systems development life cycle.

Engaging nurses in every stage of the systems development life cycle (SDLC) whether in procuring or implementing a new health information technology system (HIT) is basically buy-in to innovation and change. A concept that has been found to increase chances for organisation success.

Review of the steps of the systems development life cycle.

Step I.

Systems analysis.

During this stage, the existing technologies are evaluated to find out what works and what doesn’t work. The role of nurses as key stakeholders is to provide information on the difficulties and pros they have experienced while using the existing systems. Since nurses hold a key position in a health care facility, they are in the best position to pin point the critical systems problems in collecting, assessing, storing, retrieving, and using the information within the information system.

Therefore, failure to engage nurses at this stage would mean that the proposed new health information technology would not address the actual needs of the nurses or the health care facility.

Step II

Systems design.

During this stage, Health information technology (HIT) system expert develops a plan to improve the existing system based on the needs identified in the first step. This stage identifies the most relevant user interface, database, hardware, software and how all the various parts of the HIT can integrate into efficient and effective whole.

The nurses play a vital role in this stage in that they have the ability to propose specific operational mechanisms that need to be incorporated into the new system to increase performance. In this stage, the people responsible for designing the new system should engage nurses during ongoing testing and refining of the system.

Failure to involve nurses at this stage will mean that the new system will not be responsive to the nurses’ input and out requirements. In other words, nurses are vital in knowing whether the system being designed is useful or not.

Step III

System implementation.

In this phase, the nurses ought to help the system design expert to install the new HIT into use. It is important to note that nurses are crucial players in implementation of the new system.

The most important step in implementation is training the nurses to be able to optimise the HIT in providing safe and quality care services for patients.

Lack of training or use of improper training methods on the use of technology will negatively influence and affect the implementation hence, lead to minimum acceptance and poor motivation among the nurses.

Proper training enhances competence, confidence and the willingness to use the new HIT.

During implementation, nurses contribute insights into the necessary changes in procedures, policies, workflow, and coordination in the HIT application. Without their input, the new system will function optimally.


Step IV

System evaluation.

After implantation, the system experts, trainers, and nurses’ team leaders should evaluate the functionality, viability and how the nurses have embraced the new system. As well as the abilities of the nurses to correctly use the system.

According to Yen &Bakken 2012, the real and perceived usefulness of technology influences its application. In this stage again, nurses should be engaged fully in assessing the usability of the implemented systems.

Evaluation without the input of the nurses will lead to inaccurate results. Since they are at a better position to identify the shortcomings of the system that could compromise the quality of healthcare and even patient safety.

Step V.

System maintenance and support.

This stage involves identifying and fixing problems that could impede the function(s) of the new HIT.

After implementing the HIT, the hospital must work with the HIT developer.

In the process, the nurses will identify the set backs of the system that can curb the functioning of the system. This will help in initiation of corrective and preventive measures.

Experience in selection and planning of new information technology system in my healthcare organisation.

I have not had any input in the selection or planning of new health information technology in my nursing practice. But I have experienced being put in to be the part of the system Development life cycle from stage three (implementation stage) rather than stage one (analysis/planning stage)

For some time now, most of the health facilities have been adopting electronic health information system whereby all departments are interconnected by a hospital health information system.

For instance, if a patient   comes to the hospital for outpatient services, and for example, the doctor or the nurse has ordered some tests, he or she will key in the texts ordered into the system and send it to the laboratory technician without writing a test request sheet and giving it to the patient.

He or she will simply tell the patient to go to the laboratory and the tests will be done since the laboratory technician has the details of the patient and the test done.

Therefore, the interconnection of the various departments through an electronic health system is a complex process and without proper induction and training, air can be catastrophic to the workflow and quality of services being provided.

Not being part of the decision-making process has several impacts.

Firstly, failing to be involved in the first stages implies that we only first contacted the new system at its implementation stage. Thus, we did not know any details about the new system prior to its implementation. This gave is a short period to get familiar with how the system operates.

This enormously reduced our capacity to use the system leading to slow workflow.

Initially, we could make several mistakes in logging into the system, entering several commands into the system causing it to sometimes hang.

Secondly, we had loss of trust in the change process because we felt left out of the change. In addition, in most occasions, we resisted the change because of not being involved from stage 1.


Thirdly, we had problems in balancing options as the new system introduced competing priorities that reduced our interests causing a lot of frustrations and burnout.

Lastly, loss of personal connection to the new system since individual’s core beliefs and goals were misaligned with those of healthcare facility. This led to many nurses resigning and seeking job elsewhere.



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