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  1. QUESTION

     

     

     Discuss the history of public organization theory beginning with Woodrow Wilson and ending with a discussion of networks, collaboration, and the New Public Service. Be sure to include a critical analysis of New Public Management. (Dr. Lester)    

     

     

 

Subject Nursing Pages 5 Style APA

Answer

The History of Public Organization Theory

Introduction

The history of public governance has come a long way since the presidency of Woodrow Wilson. The use of democracy in governance has hugely become popular, especially after the World War, which originally started with a breach in governance. The murder of Archbishop Franz Ferdinand set up a series of events that led to the invasion of Serbia by Austria-Hungary. The clergyman had been murdered in the Serbian capital and his home country asked for the assistance of Germany to achieve this cause. The events led to the invasion of Russia by Germany which was Serbia’s ally later, and the British attacked Germany as a result. World War I, which lasted from 1914-1918, had originally been thought to last only a few weeks but went on to last four years. The American president then Mr. Woodrow Wilson had initially promised to keep America out of the war, citing that it was a European issue that he didn’t need to concern himself with. By the time it was 1917, however, the elements of the war had reached American shores after Germany sank several vessels carrying American passengers in the Atlantic Ocean. The president then declared that “the world must be made safe for democracy” and said that America’s involvement in the war is to make the world safe for the rights of democracy to prevail on a global level.

Discussion

Many African Americans identified themselves with this statement by the president and in turn, used it as a driving statement for their civil rights movement. They said that America should first of all clean its own mess within its borders by recognizing all citizens as equal before embarking on a global crusade to do the same (Denhardt & Catlaw, 2014). It was the driving force of the impending civil rights movement that was to happen (Lentz-Smith, 2009).  Many African Americans refused to take part in the war terming it as hypocritical that America would treat them as second-class citizens and still demand” 100 percent Americanism” in the war. The war highlighted the need for urgent equal rights. At the war’s end, the black American soldiers ceased the need to earn equal rights and sought to demand them. Black and white soldiers at the frontline clashed with one another just as they did their enemies. The African Americans fought back fiercely.

Different societies at certain times in history have been wronged by others and, therefore, this hinders great multicultural development among the generations to come which is the moral lesson learned from the book. This is part of the reason why even politics, sports, and other fields of life are filled with claims of racial profiling and making decisions based on ethnic or racial discrimination (Abji et al., 2019). Some black celebrities get entangled in messy or controversial situations like sex scandals, jail convictions, and drugs and end up losing a successful career that would have otherwise been the inspiration to many people in the black community.

Analysis of Public Management System

 Public management also shifted to include more creative and cultural freedoms under the new system and ushered in the technology era. It is for this reason that the 1920s were considered one of the most revolutionary decades in the history of the United States. The period saw a significant change in the governance elements of the United States, with most people having a deliberate shift from the traditional way of life to the modern one (Denhardt & Catlaw, 2014).  For one, most people began to be more daring with their dressing, and this saw the creation of many seemingly empowered women. The nation had just come from the Gilded Age which lasted from 1865 to 1900 and was characterized by a shift from an agricultural-based economy to an industrial one. Some of the most notable elements of the Gilded Age, which meant ‘covered in gold’ were a significant increase in the technology and innovative ventures of the time (Lentz-Smith, 2009).  Other improvements of the Gilded Age management system were a massive improvement in the railroad infrastructure of the nation. There were massive amounts of natural resources in the Western side of the country, but the majority of the railroad network covered the Eastern side only. The construction of the railway system was therefore important to ensure that the flow of resources to the east would be possible (Denhardt & Catlaw, 2014). This effectively led to massive industrialization in the country due to the availability of cheap labour.

      In my opinion, the 1920s were inspired or were a reflection of the Gilded Age in the sense that they changed the course of the country in terms of its cultural and artistic elements. First, the decade saw the beginning of women exercising their right to vote. The women mobilized themselves and approached the relevant authorities through a peaceful march to demand the right to vote (Biolsi, 2019). This incident happened a day after the inauguration of a new president and was, therefore, a significant moment for the country. Other notable incidents that happened in the 1920s were the invention of jazz music, which evolved from the members of the black community and got prominent attention across the nation.

     The public management systems were more transparent at the same time. They have gradually facilitated global improvements such as the technological age. The technology age has made it even more transparent so to speak. Today, companies that are publicly traded have to account for their spending habits, and also must have an honest and transparent management system. They have to give an account of what they do on a management basis to their relevant shareholders.

Conclusion

The four freedoms laid out in Frederick Douglas Roosevelt’s speech were met with different reactions because on the ground, the minority groups continued to face societal injustice on a cultural level. The 1920s however also saw the construction of major stadiums for sports, and this gave the nation a chance to grow and attain a vibrant sports team and culture. The national agenda at this time was purely focused on the growth of arts and entertainment, and unfortunately, some other areas of growth were neglected as a result. Some of the elements of the civil rights movement were seen during this time but for jazz bands, racism was considered foreign and unacceptable. There used to be mixed color jazz bands that could play in mixed colour clubs. Other notable jazz artists who were of black origin were also at times allowed to play in white-only clubs. This shows that during this time the country concentrated on the growth of talents in sports and arts.

 

References

Abji, S., Korteweg, A. C., & Williams, L. H. (2019). Culture Talk and the politics of the new

right: Navigating gendered racism in attempts to address violence against women in immigrant communities. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society44(3), 797-822.

Biolsi, T. (2019). Racism, Popular Culture, and the Everyday Rosebud Reservation. Native

American and  Indigenous Studies6(1), 77-110.

Denhardt, R. B., & Catlaw, T. J. (2014). Theories of public organization. Nelson Education.

Guglielmo, T.A (2018).A Martial Freedom Movement: Black GI’s Political Struggles during

World War II. Journal of American History, 104(4), 879-903.

Lentz-Smith, A.D. (2009). Freedom Struggles. Havard University Press.

 

 

 

 

 

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