{br} STUCK with your assignment? {br} When is it due? {br} Get FREE assistance. Page Title: {title}{br} Page URL: {url}
UK: +44 748 007-0908, USA: +1 917 810-5386 [email protected]



    Question 1
    The current climate crisis is widely perceived as one of the most pressing issues of our times. Different technological interventions are discussed, among them geoengineering on a large-scale level. Which questions does this raise at the intersection of science, technology, and society? How would you turn this into a research question?
    The essay is assessed according to the criteria a) spelling and grammar, b) identifying, describing and reflecting upon complex interrelations between technology, science and society by using specific examples, c) formulating relevant issues and questions, d) outlining an appropriate research idea.





Subject Essay Writing Pages 5 Style APA


The issue of Science and Technology in the Framework of Climate Manipulation and Societal Participation

The world population is growing at an alarming rate, which poses adverse effects to the sustainability and the exploitation of environmental resources. The world entities are unsustainably using natural resources to the detrimental impact on the environment that, without intervention mechanisms, will result in further global crisis (Maslin, 2019). There are concerns over the use of land resources such as overburdening water outlets, tree logging without replanting, and overexploitation of the aquatic life, which increases carbon emission into the sky leading to global warming among others. Interestingly, with the increase in population, consumption rate has soured to an alarming level, which then calls for more rapid actions to meet the production demand, further straining the environment due to the increase in carbon emission. Whatever the case, the environmental strains have significantly influenced our climate to a crisis level.

 In the wake of these developments, the field of science and technology has witnessed several technological interventions and projects geared towards finding a lasting solution or temporary mechanisms to combat the global crisis. One such advancement is Geoengineering, which is a deliberate effort by the scientists and researchers to counteract the climate changes using large-scale intervention methods in the Earth surface (Letcher, 2018).  Several geoengineering techniques have been in use since the turn of the millennium ranging from solar radiation management to carbon engineering which found the backing of Paul Crutzen. A climate scientist and Nobel Prize winner who called on the world population to be prepared to inject large amounts of sulphate particles into the atmosphere as a way of producing a global cooling effect (Maslin, 2019). However distant it seemed, in 2015, the world countries signed the Paris Agreement to keep the surgent temperatures at manageable levels to as low as below two degrees Celsius.

Solar Radiation Management Techniques

 Given the prevailing circumstances witnessed and discussed by the world leaders and global players, researchers are leaning towards a more radical response. To meet the global expectations of zero-emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere scientists would have to apply the solar engineering technique to more significant effect with the cooperation of the global players and the society, being the primary beneficiary (Irvine et al., 2016). Solar radiation management technique would purposefully change the earth’s radiative balance by injecting conditions and particles that will control the heat radiation (Irvine et al., 2016). One of the techniques is to mimic the cooling effect of the massive volcanic eruptions by injecting Sulphur into the atmosphere to reflect on the incoming sunlight. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, injecting the aerosols in the stratosphere could work to effect that is more significant by lowering the temperatures to a desirable standard of below two degrees Celsius. Additionally, using this technique could significantly scale down the temperatures and precipitation anomalies.

Another exorbitant method under the solar engineering framework is to scale up the reflective power of the stratocumulus clouds (Rogelj et al., 2016). Because these clouds are brighter, adding more vapour into the lower surface would increase the albedo after evaporation. For example, spraying the water upwards will form mist, which rises the cooling particles. Even though it is an unstainable approach to controlling solar radiation due to the enormous costs and resources mobilization, it is a short-term remedy to climate change. Further, installing space reflectors could help in blocking a small number of sunrays from reaching the earth surface, thus regulating the temperatures for a period. However, when invested in, these techniques can have a far-reaching impact on environmental conservation. Lastly, solar geoengineering technique that is viable in the long term involves scattering the high-altitude clouds known for their high warming effect. A sheet of frozen water into the surface destroys the cloud’s capacity to reflect on the short-wave radiation, thus balancing the earth radiation effect. However, the approach could have a severe warming effect in the long – run when it is unstainable.

 Solar radiation management has received tremendous backing from developed nations, with the United States leading in research and adoption of mechanisms useful in controlling the climate change (Rogelj et al., 2016). From 2015 to date, more research and experiments into the subject has occurred with some done in the open space while some in the controlled rooms. Remarkable results from the studies encourage the government to embrace the technology. For example, solar engineering could help in controlling the irregular radiations witnessed during the summer by creating a stable radiation wave. In addition, these interventions occur within a relatively short period producing faster results to the climatic condition; hence, it is a short-term remedy.

Nevertheless, there are risks to using this approach to conservation. Using Sulphur to increase reflection surface may result in acid rain with an adverse effect on human life and marine life. Moreover, because it cannot reduce the level of carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere, acidity in the oceans still possess a challenge.

Greenhouse Gas Removal

Human activities since the era of the industrial revolution have had a significant impact on the environment by increasing the number of greenhouse gases or carbon in the atmosphere and causing adverse climatic conditions (Olivier et al., 2017). Therefore, geoengineering in aspects of carbon dioxide removal techniques is the clear path to rid the humans and the environment from the challenges brought by irresponsible exploitation of the earth’s resources. It is advocated for as part of the remedies to the extreme climate conditions and as an approach to implementing the 2015 Paris Pact on environmental sustainability (Rogelj et al., 2016). Carbon geoengineering is a global approach aimed at totally removing carbon in the atmosphere while combating the effects on land and ocean. Some of the techniques require considerable investments in terms of resource allocation and mobilization to simple acts of planting trees. The techniques include; afforestation, biochar, carbon capture and insulation, ocean fertilization, and enhancement of the ocean alkalinity.

Increasing the forest cover as carbon engineering technique requires both the state and the society to act in goodwill to fully succeed. The trees, in the process of photosynthesis capture the carbon from the atmosphere and with the help of solar energy convert the gas into biomass until the destruction of the tree (Van Vuuren et al., 2016). The damage or the degradation of the forest cover contribute to climate change through the release of carbon dioxide into the environment. While planting trees increase the forest – cover and reduces the amount of carbon in the background, cutting them down for any reason is detrimental to these effect as some trees grow at a slower rate than usual. When left to grow, trees are beneficial over a long period compared to when the forest is often disturbed, thus establishing atmospheric air balance. Even though global tree planting is not a sustainable approach to eradicating the amount of carbon emitted into the sky, it serves as a safer path for developing countries to counter carbon emissions.

Carbon capture is a technique applied in carbon engineering involves capturing and storing the gas before its release into space (Van Vuuren et al., 2016). The technology can attract a higher percentage of the carbon dioxide released by burning fossil fuels to generate electric power and industrial activities such as cement production. Again, using other methods, the gas can be collected and stored in suitable geology for further use or disposal. For example, the gas is collected through the pre-combustion process, which involves burning the fossil fuels with pure oxygen to produce steam and carbon dioxide gas and post-combustion and oxyfuel equipment fitted to the main plant.  Carbon capture and storage technology are beneficial in controlling climate change and averting dangerous climatic conditions as it reduces emission from large industrial installations. Consequently, it is a tool to tackle climate change when used together with other bioenergy technologies to generate power.

Societal Participation and the Role of Government in Geoengineering

The reason for engaging in Geoengineering may seem simple and quite clear, which is to tame the risky climatic conditions before it escalates further. Still, the technicalities and challenges adopting such technologies pose are immense. Utilizing the technology shakes the society at its core with the moral and the ethical considerations (Letcher, 2018). Further, is the risk assessment on the type of technology used and its long-term effect both on humans and aquatic life. Answering these questions is significant for future progress and use of technological advancement in the field. While formulating a guiding principle for the development and use of geoengineering advancements, a group of British Scholar developed the Oxford Principles to guide society when interacting with the technology (Maslin, 2019). The principles are regulating geoengineering as a public good, public participation in geoengineering decision making, disclosure of the research, impact assessment and governance before use.  It is imperative to state that the adoption of these principles though delays action has prevented dangerous experiments that can endanger lives such as oceanic fertilization.

In conclusion, with continued human activities in the environment ranging from over-exploitation of resources to irresponsible disposal of waste, adverse climatic conditions are for the present and future generations. Therefore, as a response to the menace, governments and scientists have adopted a radicle approach to climatic interventions with geoengineering making a remarkable contribution to the effect. While research on solar engineering is controversial, in the spirit of engagement and accountability, both the government and non-state actors should dialogue to find better ground for future participation and consumption of the technologies. Even though carbon engineering technology has some easy maneuvers, states should consider the most valuable approach before deploying the techniques as this will save on cost and time for action.




Irvine, P. J., Kravitz, B., Lawrence, M. G., & Muri, H. (2016). An overview of the Earth system science of solar geoengineering. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change7(6), 815-833.

Letcher, T. M. (Ed.). (2018). Managing Global Warming: An Interface of Technology and Human Issues. Academic Press.

Maslin, M. A. (2019). Climate Change: essential knowledge for developing holistic solutions to our climate crisis. Emerging Topics in Life Sciences3(2), 245-256.

Olivier, J. G., Schure, K. M., & Peters, J. A. H. W. (2017). Trends in global CO2 and total greenhouse gas emissions. PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, 5.

Rogelj, J., & Den, E. M. H㶠hne N, Fransen T, Fekete H, Winkler H, Schaeffer R, Sha F, Riahi K, Meinshausen M (2016) Paris agreement climate proposals need a boost to keep warming well below 2âÂc. Nature534(7609), 631-639.

Van Vuuren, D. P., Van Soest, H., Riahi, K., Clarke, L., Krey, V., Kriegler, E., & Tavoni, M. (2016). Carbon budgets and energy transition pathways. Environmental Research Letters11(7), 075002.


Related Samples

WeCreativez WhatsApp Support
Our customer support team is here to answer your questions. Ask us anything!
👋 Hi, how can I help?