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1. The level of stress

QUESTION

Confidence in recall differs depending on the level of stress.

Confidence in recall differs depending on the level of stress.
Recall for participants in high-stress conditions will deteriorate over time.
Boys will have higher levels of confidence than girls.
In a 1- to 2-page Microsoft Word document, for each hypothesis listed above, indicate:

Describe how a Type I error might occur, given the context of the assignment. Describe how a Type II error might occur, given the context of the assignment (i.e., if my hypothesis was that women had higher levels of empathy than men, a Type I error might occur if I found significant results with women scoring higher on empathy than men, when, in the general population that is not the case; a Type II error might occur if I found no differences in empathy between men and women when, in the general population women score higher on empathy than men).
Whether the appropriate analysis would be a one-tailed test or a two-tailed test

Subject Pages Style Psychology 3 APA

Type 1 and Type II Errors

A significant statistical result is not satisfactory to validate the correctness of a research hypothesis. Given that the value a p-value is often computed based on probabilities, wrong conclusions are likely to be made on whether to accept or reject the hull hypothesis (Banerjee, Chitnis, Jadhav, Bhawalkar, & Chaudhury, 2009)  When an individual makes a decision based on statistic, he or she is likely to arrive at four possibilities. Two of the possible outcomes represent correct decisions while the other two represent errors. These errors are grouped as either type I or type II. Essentially, the chances of getting these errors inversely proportional. Using this background, this paper uses the provided case scenario to explain ways in which type I and type II errors might occur.

Commonly referred as false positive, type I error can occurs when a researcher wrongly declines a null hypothesis that is true (Banerjee, Chitnis, Jadhav, Bhawalkar, & Chaudhury, 2009).. Due to this rejection, the researcher concludes that his or her findings are important when indeed they have occurred based on possibilities. Similarly known as false negative, type II error often occurs when an investigator deliberately decides to reject a false null hypothesis. In this case, the investigator finally concludes that no significant effect exists while indeed there is significant effect (Banerjee, Chitnis, Jadhav, Bhawalkar, & Chaudhury, 2009). Type I and type II errors are important in any statistical research. First, type I error implies that unnecessary changes or interventions have been adopted that only waste time and resources. The importance of type II error is that it assists researchers to uphold the current conditions of the findings when any change is required.

As already discussed, type I error and type II error, the following solutions will be given;

Type I error: false positive. The result indicate that the hypothesis is correct when in real sense it is wrong

Type II error. False negative. The outcome indicates that the hypothesis is false while in real sense it should be correct as shown in the table below.

 Case Type I Error Type II Error 1 Or 2 Tailed Test Confidence in recall differs based on the stress level When the data shows an important outcomes that confidence varies across stress levels but in real sense the confidence level hardly varies significantly across levels of stress. When the data depicts important outcomes that the confidence is similar across stress levels but in real sense, the levels of confidence varies considerably across stress levels. 2 tailed. Recall for participants in highly stressful conditions will decline as time progresses. When the data depicts important outcomes that the recall under highly stressful situations declines as time progresses but in real sense recall hardly declines under highly stressful conditions. When the data depicts important outcomes that the recall under highly stressful situations hardly declines as time progresses but in real sense recall declines significantly under highly stressful conditions. 1-tailed Boys are likely to have greater degree of confidence as compared to girls. When the data depicts a critical outcomes that boys have a relatively greater levels of confidence as compared to girls but in real sense the level of confidence hardly varies across genders. When the data displays a significant outcome that boys hardly have greater confidence levels as compared to girls but in real sense the levels of confidence varies considerably across genders. i-tailed

Conclusion

From the table above, it is evident that hypothesis testing entails the art of testing whether variations between sample distributions can either be explained randomly or not. The table has shown that type I and type II errors occur based on the decision that researchers make. Precisely, when a researcher concludes that two distributions vary significantly, adequate precaution must be taken to establish that the differences are not just random chance.  At the center of type I error is that researchers do not want to make unwarranted hypothesis and thus exercise much care by lowering the possibility of its occurrence. Therefore, both type I and type II errors must be considered to make correct and significant decision regarding the correctness of a hypothesis.

### References

Banerjee, A., Chitnis, U. B., Jadhav, S. L., Bhawalkar, J. S., & Chaudhury, S. (2009). Hypothesis testing, type I and type II errors. Industrial psychiatry journal18(2), 127.

Appendix

 Appendix A: Communication Plan for an Inpatient Unit to Evaluate the Impact of Transformational Leadership Style Compared to Other Leader Styles such as Bureaucratic and Laissez-Faire Leadership in Nurse Engagement, Retention, and Team Member Satisfaction Over the Course of One Year