To what extent have specific historical events or persons shaped the national identity and the contemporary politics of France, Germany, and the UK? Identify security and socio-economic challenges confronting each country and consider whether responses to each have been successful. Challenges include Brexit, COVID, and the Migrant crises. The key terms provide other examples, but also discuss general economic, cultural, and security trends-how well each countryhas been doing.
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Key Terms (include as many as possible):
The State, Failed State, Civil Society, Unitary State, Federal State,Presidential System, Parliamentary System, Semi-Presidential System, Vote of No Confidence,Head of State, Head of Government, Cabinet, Proportional Representation (PR), PluralityElectoral System, Threshold, HDI, Brexit, Disproportionality, Supreme Court, House of Lords, House ofCommons, Question Time, Devolution, Conservative Party, Labour Party, Margaret Thatcher,NHS, UK COVID Response, French Revolution, Napoleon, Vichy, Charles de Gaulle, French HeadscarfLaw, Charlie Hebdo, Semi-Presidential, TRS, Cohabitation, National Assembly, EmmanuelMacron, Republicans, Socialists, National Rally, Article 16, Code Law, French National HealthService, French Labor Laws, Pension Reform, France COVID ResponseModule Week Four: Constructive Vote of No Confidence, Angela Merkel, Mixed ElectoralSystem, Bundestag, Bundesrat, Re-Unification, CDU/CSU, SPD, FDP, Greens, Weimar
Republic, Alternative for Germany, Grand Coalition, Constitutional Court, Syrian Migrants,Agenda 2010, German Energy Policy, German COVID responce
|Subject||Law and governance||Pages||2||Style||APA|
The Politics of France, Germany, and the UK
The French and the German and the UK are former imperial individuals, and to that extent, they share certain features of national identity common to individuals who have had empires. These include a missionary sense of themselves, a feeling that they have or have had, a purpose in the world wider than the issues of non-empirical nations. The German, French, and the UK, have diverged substances, especially among the French that the British were more successful in their imperial ventures (Hutter & Kriesi, 2019). Moreover, contrasting domestic histories, evolutionary in the German and the UK case, revolutionary in that of the French have significantly colored national identities in the three nations. These aspects together have produced a more intense sense of nationhood and a significant national consciousness among the French than the UK and German. This paper aims to identify and discuss the security and socio-economic issues encountered in German, French, and the UK. Moreover, the paper will center on the current challenges such as Brexit, Covid, and the Migrant Crisis.
The Covid-19 pandemic is something that got many nations in panic mode. Research indicates that France had Europe’s first confirmed cases, but the French government failed for weeks to implement decisive action to impose strict social distancing and endorse large-scale testing (Anderson, Mckee & Mossialos, 2020). The UK was also among the nations hit hardest by the Covid pandemic. Research indicates that the UK is ranked fourth in the world with the highest cases. In response, the Covid-19 pandemic, German, France, and the UK implemented different similar actions but differed with the allocation of resources. In all three nations, masks were made compulsory in all public places. The UK executed extra measures to ensure that its citizens are protected from the pandemic (Hutter & Kriesi, 2019). For instance, just before Christmas, the UK developed the fourth tier for London and the Southeast. The four-tier restrictions included individuals forced to remain at home unless they have to travel for work, education, and healthcare. Households were largely restricted from mixing, All non-essential workshops indoor leisure and entertainment, and personal care were closed.
Although German, French, and the UK implemented similar approaches in the response to the Covid-19 pandemic, they differ with the allocation of resources. For instance, in late 2020, the French government allocated a 45 billion aid package for small enterprises and other affected sectors of the economy. The stimulus incorporated reduced social security contributions of 35 billion in unemployment benefits linked to forced part-time employment, while a solidarity fund for the self-employed and shopkeepers (Anderson, Mckee & Mossialos, 2020). Moreover, the French government ensured bank loans and postponed reforms of the unemployment insurance and pensions systems. The German government announced a stimulus package that incorporated an increase to the state subsidies given to encourage potential purchasers of new electric and hybrid cars.
Besides the Covid pandemic, the UK has also encountered issues with Brexit. For instance, the Northern Ireland parties across the spectrum necessitated special status to avoid border controls with Ireland but the Democratic Unionists did not want to adhere to EU laws. While regarding Brexit, some concerns need to be resolved. For instance, acknowledging the rights of the EU budget, the transfer of regulatory obligations from EU agencies, and the status of the UK’s commitment to UN environmental objectives made through EU legislation.
Brexit necessitates a custom agreement with the EU, but one short of existing UK full membership. This would allow the UK to pursue its trade agreements (Financial Times, 2020). However, it may encounter extreme opposition to the negotiated exit agreement within the Prime Minister’s party from both Leave and Remain camps. Various ministers have resigned from the cabinet, including the minister responsible for negotiations. Moreover, points of disagreement ranked from Northern Ireland to the UK having to adhere to “Common Market” rules (Financial Times, 2020). The Prime Minister’s plan for Brexit was defeated in the House of the Commons. Research indicates that almost all opposition Members of Parliament voted No and were joined by 118 Conservatives and all DUP Members of Parliament (Financial Times, 2020). The PM brought back the agreement, but it was defeated again by a slightly smaller margin. The EU responded by resetting the deadline for Brexit for the UK to pass the agreement or hold a national election.
The Brexit talks resulted in different resolutions. For instance, after a period of negotiations, the EU and the UK agreed to a Post-Brexit Agreement taking effect on January 1, 2021, following ratification by the EU and the UK parliament (Financial Times, 2020). The accord included zero tariffs and quotas on products but EU and UK organizations will have to pay the expenses for new export and import declarations. The United Kingdom is obliged to ensure that the subsidy regime respects significant principles implemented in the treaty. The “end of free movement” is another resolution that has brought significant debates. Research indicates that this resolution signifies that UK citizens will no longer have the right to work, study, live or start a business in the EU without proper documents (Financial Times, 2020). This venture may significantly impact UK sectors such as agriculture and health since several foreign workers will be declined.
Brexit will present different challenges to the UK including reducing the price of fish caught by the EU in the UK waters. The reduction will be encountered for a five-year transition, then the United Kingdom will have full control and access to its waters, resulting in a much deeper reduction. Conclusively, there will be no hard border between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. It remains the existing structure that maintains Ireland in the EU’s single market for products by having Northern Ireland implement EU custom policies at its ports.
This question has been answered
Anderson, M., Mckee, M., & Mossialos, E. (2020). Covid-19 exposes weaknesses in the European response to outbreaks.