{br} STUCK with your assignment? {br} When is it due? {br} Get FREE assistance. Page Title: {title}{br} Page URL: {url}
UK: +44 748 007-0908, USA: +1 917 810-5386 [email protected]
  1. The respiratory center


    Discuss The respiratory center




Subject Biology Pages 7 Style APA


The respiratory center is found in the medulla oblongata and pons in the brainstem. Brinkman, Toro, and Sharma (2020) indicate that the respiratory center comprises three significant respiratory collections of neurons, one in the pons and two in the medulla. In the medulla, they include the dorsal respiratory accumulation and ventral respiratory collection. The pontine respiratory collection consists of two areas: the pneumatic center and the apneustic center in the pons. The respiratory center is accountable for collecting and sustaining the rhythm of breathing and coordinating this in homeostatic acknowledgment to physiological modifications.

According to Brinkman et al. (2020), the respiratory center receives input from chemoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, the cerebral cortex, and the hypothalamus to cordinate breathing levels and depth. Input is aroused by adjusted levels of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and blood PH, by hormonal fluctuations correlating to anxiety and distress from the hypothalamus, and by signs from the cerebral cortex to produce perceived direction respiration. According to Brinkman et al. (2020), the medulla oblongata is the leading respiratory command station. Its primary purpose is to transmit signals to the tissues that regulate respiration to cause respiration to happen. The pons, on the other hand, contain the rate or speed of involved unitary respiration. The pons examines the depth of breathing and is inhibited by the pulmonary tissues’ stretch receptors at the highest center of stimulus or signs from the pnuemotaxic.

Question 2

Hypoxemia is described as the reduction in the partial tension of oxygen in the blood. There are various hypoxemia mechanisms, including oxygen delivery issues, decreased FAC-CC relationship, hypoventilation, fell cardiac output, increased oxygen consumption, decreased hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, and increased nonalveolar right-to-left shunting. However, Ventilation/perfusion mismatch, also defined as V/Q defects, is the most common underlying hypoxemia mechanism. Ventilation-perfusion mismatches are defects in the lung’s ventilation-perfusion ratio. According to Sarkar, Niranjan, and Banyal (2017), it is a condition in which one or more lung areas receive oxygen, no blood flow, or receive blood flow but no oxygen due to some illnesses and disorders.

Hypercapnia is a state that emerges from excess carbon dioxide in the blood. It is caused by hyperventilation or disorganized breathing where not sufficient oxygen enters the lungs and not sufficient carbon dioxide is released (Sarkar et al., 2017). Various hypercapnia mechanisms involve enhanced carbon dioxide creation, alveolar dead space, and elevated external dead areas. However, hypercapnia is caused by hypoventilation, lung infection, or diminished awareness. It can be caused by vulnerability to an atmosphere comprising extremely high carbon dioxide levels, such as geothermal or volcanic activity, or by re-breathing emitted carbon dioxide. Acute hypercapnic respiratory failure may emerge in acute illness caused by Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), chest wall deformity, neuromuscular illnesses such as obesity, hypoventilation syndrome, and myasthenia (Sarkar et al., 2017).

Question 3

Pulmonary edema is a disease of the lung. According to Herrero, Sanchez, and Lorente (2018), Pulmonary edema is the buildup of fluid in the lungs’ alveoli. This solution flows from blood canals, beyond capillary and alveolar membranes, into the alveoli, resulting in shortness of breath. The alveoli can be impacted depending on the cause and risk of pulmonary edema.  According to healthcare experts, pulmonary edema caused by heart failure affects the lungs’ bases, whereas severe adult respiratory distresses syndrome incorporates edema within the lung.

There are two types of pulmonary edema. These include cardiogenic and noncardiogenic. Cardiogenic pulmonary edema is caused by congestive heart failure (CHF). According to Herrero et al. (2018), congestive heart failure is the most prevalent cause of pulmonary edema. Heart failure occurs when the heart cannot pump blood adequately to all body parts. This develops a backup force in the lungs’ small vessels, making the vessels leak fluid.  In a healthy human being, the lungs often obtain oxygen from the air an individual breathes and puts into the bloodstream. However, the fluid leaked by the vessels fill an individual’s lungs; he/she cannot put oxygen into the bloodstream, consequently depriving oxygen to the rest of the body. The second cause of pulmonary edema is pneumonia. Pneumonia causes fluid accumulation in the small air sacs in an individual’s lungs. Even so, pneumonia is a condition caused by an infection with bacteria, fungus, or virus (Herrero et al., 2018). Its symptoms often include heart pain, weakness, restlessness, coughing, shortness of breath, and stomach complications.

There are various manifestations of pulmonary edema. In incidents of pulmonary edema, an individual’s body often struggles to obtain oxygen. This is due to increased fluid in the lungs blocking oxygen from passing into the bloodstream.  Physicians indicate that indications may extend worsening if an individual does not seek immediate medical attention. Other symptoms of pulmonary edema comprise conciseness of breath when being physically energetic, trouble in breathing when resting down, panting, fatigues, awaking at night with a breathless sense that drops when an individual sits up, and swelling in the lower segment of the body (Herrero et al., 2018). Pulmonary edema is considered a severe illness that necessitates immediate treatment. Oxygen is often the initial form of therapy for this ailment. Pulmonary edema’s treatment procedure often depends on the illness’s cause and prescribes suitable treatment for the primary reason. Depending on the state and the pulmonary edema cause, the doctor can suggest prescriptions such as preload reducers, afterload reducers, heart medication, and Morphine (Herrero et al., 2018). A physician may require interpolating an endotracheal tube or breathing case down the windpipe and using mechanical air-conditioning in some cases. Moreover, a person can be assisted in breathing by using a machine to produce oxygen under pressure to generate enough air into the lungs.

Question 4

Croup and epiglottis are often confused, given that they share signs and symptoms such as stridor. Nevertheless, early illness differentiation is achievable by supplementary observation of coughing and the inadequacy of drooling in Croup and the further monitoring of drooling with absences of coughing in the epiglottis. According to Kivekäs and Rautiainen (2018), the epiglottis is a leaf-shaped flexible design with overlying loosened connective muscle and a thin mucosa. On most occasions, the laryngeal airway in infants is often narrow. Similarly, insignificant swelling of the mucosa may create notable airway narrowing. Acute epiglottis commences with the epiglottis’s lingual surface’s swelling and then spreads to the laryngeal surface and the aryepiglottic folds. Kivekäs and Rautiainen (2018) indicate that bacterial aggression of the mucosa results in fulminant disease. While epiglottis is a bacterial infection, Croup is a viral infection.

Croup is a viral disease that causes edema of the larynx and trachea as well as the bronchi. The edema most critically manifests this within the cricoids ring, which has the narrowest region and fixed circumference of the pediatric airway (Kivekäs & Rautiainen, 2018). Notable narrowing in this area may result in life-threatening airway complications. The narrowed subglottic area results in a standard barky cough.  The subglottic area of a kid is often more prejudiced and more elastic than in adults. The narrowing that emerges with influence may be exaggerated in a kid with Croup.

Regarding clinical presentation, epiglottis presents a tremendous fever, inspiratory stridor, anxiety, and rhapsodizing. Moreover, breathing complexities may produce an unhealthy and enthusiastic attitude. According to healthcare providers, the patient experiences discomfort with swallowing and may develop a sore throat. The voice is often silenced when a person has epiglottis. When an individual has epiglottis, symptoms emerge rapidly, on various occasions, within 12-24 hours, including signs of any predecessor upper respiratory tract disease (Kivekäs & Rautiainen, 2018). Unlike Croup, cough is unique. Young children with epiglottis are usually systematically sick. This is described as an otolaryngologic emergency. Kids with Croup develop a barking cough and are less likely to create drooling or request on sitting in the “sniffing” position. Individuals with coup often appear less toxic than people with epiglottis.

Croup often starts with non-specific upper respiratory tract manifestations, including nasal blockage and coryza. However, after 12-48 hours, there is the unexpected emergence of a barky cough. This cough often appears late at nighttime.  The other features of Croup include stridor, hoarseness, and fever. Fever may range from 39.4–40 °C, or 103–104 °F, particularly in cases caused by influenza and parainfluenza virus (Kivekäs & Rautiainen, 2018). Moreover, respiratory difficulty emerges in alternating orders, depending on the cruelty of the airway impediment. In moderate cases of Croup, stridor is at rest but may arise due to different factors. Incidents categorized as average to critical Croup are related to stridor at comfort and a rising chest wall retraction rate. In critical Croup, the patient is disturbed or lethargic. On the other hand, in severe epiglottic, the patient develops a sore throat and severe odynophagia (Kivekäs & Rautiainen, 2018). Nevertheless, in the epiglottis, the sore throat is more severe than anticipates, based on oropharynx examination research.

Question 5

Bacterial pneumonia is an inflammation of the airways generated by bacterial, fungal, or viral infection. On the other hand, atypical pneumonia, also known as walking pneumonia, is described as a non-medical term for a milder pneumonia case. According to Berg et al. (2017), when an individual has bacterial pneumonia, he/she will require at least few days on bed rest. Some severe cases may need hospitalization. However, atypical pneumonia is sometimes hard to notice because the symptoms are so mild. Some individuals may feel they have a cold or other mild viral disease. The symptoms of atypical pneumonia are similar to those of bacterial pneumonia.

The significant difference is that symptoms of atypical pneumonia are milder. For instance, while bacterial pneumonia causes a high fever and cough that produces mucus, atypical pneumonia involves a very low fever and a dry cough. Moreover, atypical pneumonia is often caused by a bacterial infection, while bacterial pneumonia can emerge from viral, fungal, or bacterial infection (Berg et al., 2017). In most occasions, atypical pneumonia may not necessitate treatment, though some incidents may require antibiotics. However, bacterial pneumonia may need additional treatment to enhance breathing and minimize inflammation in a patient’s airways.

Atypical pneumonia is often milder than bacterial pneumonia, which involves a longer recovery time. It can last for six weeks to fully recover from atypical pneumonia. However, bacterial pneumonia often starts improving shortly after starting antibiotics, while viral, bacterial starts improving after three days. Unlike other forms of pneumonia, individuals with atypical pneumonia often don’t experience severe shortness of breath, high fever, and a productive cough (Berg et al., 2017). Both atypical and bacterial pneumonia are contiguous.



Berg, A. S., Inchley, C. S., Fjaerli, H. O., Leegaard, T. M., Lindbaek, M., & Nakstad, B. (2017). Clinical features and inflammatory markers in pediatric pneumonia: a prospective study. European journal of pediatrics176(5), 629-638. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00431-017-2887-y

Brinkman, J. E., Toro, F., & Sharma, S. (2020). Physiology, respiratory drive. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482414/

Herrero, R., Sanchez, G., & Lorente, J. A. (2018). New insights into the mechanisms of pulmonary edema in acute lung injury. Annals of Translational Medicine6(2). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5799138/

Kivekäs, I., & Rautiainen, M. (2018). Epiglottitis, Acute Laryngitis, and Croup. Infections of the Ears, Nose, Throat, and Sinuses, 247-255. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-74835-1_20

Sarkar, M., Niranjan, N., & Banyal, P. K. (2017). Mechanisms of hypoxemia. Lung India: official organ of Indian Chest Society34(1), 47. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5234199/














Appendix A:

Communication Plan for an Inpatient Unit to Evaluate the Impact of Transformational Leadership Style Compared to Other Leader Styles such as Bureaucratic and Laissez-Faire Leadership in Nurse Engagement, Retention, and Team Member Satisfaction Over the Course of One Year

Related Samples

WeCreativez WhatsApp Support
Our customer support team is here to answer your questions. Ask us anything!
👋 Hi, how can I help?