The risk of cardiovascular disease
How convincing is the scientific evidence that nuts decreased the risk of cardiovascular disease or the risk of death from cardiovascular
Impact of Nuts Intake on Cardiovascular Diseases.
Cardiovascular diseases refer to various conditions that arise due to the blockage of blood vessels after the development of atherosclerosis (Appendix 1). Common cardiovascular diseases (CVD) include Ischemic Heart disease, Coronary Heart disease, Coronary artery disease, and Myocardial Infarction. An underlying preconception about CVD is that nuts’ consumption can lower the risk factors of these diseases or reduce the propensity of dying from CVD.
Consumption of nuts can lower the risk of all CVDs by about 14% and about 15% for Coronary heart disease. The impact is mainly due to the high fatty acid composition of nuts. Notably, nuts have a high content of folate, magnesium, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (Um & He, 2011). Thus, the consumption of nuts, which translates to a high intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids and MUFA, reduces Triacylglycerol (TAG), which is a leading risk factor for CVD.
Nouran et al.’s (2010) randomized crossover clinical trial compares the impact of consuming peanuts with another diet on a person’s susceptibility to CVDs. From the results obtained, the consumption of peanuts resulted in improved chances of not getting CVDs. Ideally, the statistical difference in reducing risk factors for CVD between consuming peanuts and other diets was depicted in measures for body weight, blood pressure, and two elements of blood cholesterol. Notably, the P-value was over 0.1, indicating a significant impact of peanut on reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Guasch-Ferré et al. (2017) study the relationship between the intake of different nut and the various CVDs. In this regard, the relative risk of contracting cardiovascular illness when not taking any nuts is one that represents a high risk. However, taking any form of nuts at least once a week reduces the relative risk by about 0.1 percent. On the other hand, maintaining a trend of taking nuts reduces the relative risk for CVDs to 0.0002. Almost similar findings are realized when the types of nuts are varied, indicating that both peanuts, tree nuts, peanut butter, and walnuts significantly reduce the risk of contracting any cardiovascular illnesses when taken regularly.
Luu et al. (2015) evaluate the cause-specific mortality involving cardiovascular illness and how nuts’ intake impacts them. In this regard, utilizing food validated frequency, Luu et al. (2015) found that the lowest intake of nuts results in the highest mortality rates from CVD. However, the high frequency of consuming nuts leads to a significant reduction of mortality incidences related to CVDs.
From the evaluation in the four articles, it is apparent that peanuts reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and mortality risk from CVD. Notably, the articles utilize scientific approaches to carry out their studies, thereby making them convincing. Moreover, primary research is carried out in all studies, which enhances their evidence level. Consequently, the articles are either level one or level two, which indicates high validity and reliability. As such, the scientific evidence presented in Appendix 1 articles is highly convincing that nuts decreased the risk of cardiovascular diseases or the risk of death.
Guasch-Ferré, M., Liu, X., Malik, V. S., Sun, Q., Willett, W. C., Manson, J. E., & Bhupathiraju, S. N. (2017). Nut consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 70(20), 2519-2532.
Luu, H. N., Blot, W. J., Xiang, Y. B., Cai, H., Hargreaves, M. K., Li, H., … & Shu, X. O. (2015). Prospective evaluation of the association of nut/peanut consumption with total and cause-specific mortality. JAMA internal medicine, 175(5), 755-766.
Nouran, M. G., Kimiagar, M., Abadi, A., Mirzazadeh, M., & Harrison, G. (2010). Peanut consumption and cardiovascular risk. Public health nutrition, 13(10), 1581-1586.
Um, C. Y., & He, K. (2011). Long-term walnut supplementation without dietary advice induces favorable serum lipid changes in free-living individuals. European journal of clinical nutrition, 65(3), 421-421.