The role of public health
Lo1 Understand different approaches and strategies used to measure monitor to control the incidence of disease in communities .
Explain the roles of different agencies bin identifying levels of health and disease in communities
Explain using statical data the epidemiology of one or two infectious and one non infectious disease that is widespread in their own country.
Create proper paragragraphs
Discuss relevans of diagrams and purpose
Sourses accessed date
Public health is the art and discipline of avoiding diseases while extending life and promoting health and safety with well-organized hard work and informed selections of government, culture, community, and private sectors. There are some agencies that are formed with the purpose of controlling health and the social work involved. Different types of diseases exist which can be classified as either infectious or non-infectious. The population can adopt different strategies and approaches to avoid both of these types of diseases (Storey et al., 2007). Services to prevent and eliminate these diseases can be provided in disease prevention, medical treatment, palliative care, and remedial care.
Allocation of resources for public health should be based on objective assessments of the health status, level of disease burden, injury, their preventability, and the related costs. The public health surveillance is the systematic collection, analysis and the interpretation of data. This is a tool for estimating the health status and the behavior of the population served by the government ministries and the donors. Surveillance can directly measure the happenings of the population that is useful for measuring the need for interventions and directly measuring the effects of interventions. The purpose of this surveillance is to empower decision makers to manage the diseases more effectively by providing timely and useful evidence. There exist various strategies can be adopted to measure, monitor, and control the incidence of diseases in the community (Busby et al., 2009).
Firstly, the health agencies can conduct an active surveillance where staff members contact the health care providers or the population to collect information about the health conditions. Secondly, passive surveillance can also be employed where data collected from reports from the hospitals, clinics and other public health units is analyzed. Routine health information with information about the diseases can also be used to monitor the prevalence of diseases. Research indicates that the risk of disease outbreaks and deaths during natural disasters and emergencies may be minimized through early introduction of disease surveillance, effective prevention epidemic preparedness, and control. Early detection, immediate reporting, and response are vital to limit the spread of disease outbreaks and epidemics (Schneider et al., 2016).
Failure to implement timely, coordinated and effective measures may lead to re-emergence of the old disease threats, outbreaks of changed disease patterns, high mortality and morbidity from delayed disease detection and response, spread of diseases targeted for eradication like polio and leprosy. The aim of disease control is to reduce excess mortality and morbidity by limiting the spread of diseases with potential of being an epidemic. Proposed interventions include adequate supply of safe water, good sanitation, reproductive health, nutritional services, food security, shelter, and basic the clinical care. In addition to considering the feasibility, effectiveness, cost, and speed of implementation of proposed intervention, it is paramount to consider how it will be incorporated into the overall response as well as the behavior and culture of target populations (Craig & Smith, 2008).
Different agencies exist with the task of identifying levels of health and diseases in the communities. These agencies comprise of World Health Organization (WHO), Primary Care Trusts (PCT) and Health Protection Agency (HPA). Although the three have different objectives and targets, they have one thing in common in that they are working towards having an environment that is safer and free from health risk. WHO functions by mainly providing support and services to different health intuitions around the world especially those that are primarily in need of it. The organizations also collaborate with other health care organizations in the implementation of certain activities and programs. WHO outreach deeds are mostly recognized during national calamities, outbreaks, disasters, and other worldwide alarming occurrences (Busby et al., 2009).
Storey, C, Ford, J, Cheater, F, Hurst, K, & Leese, B 2007, ‘Nurses working in primary and community care settings in England: problems and challenges in identifying numbers’, Journal Of Nursing Management, 15, 8, pp. 847-852.