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    Please answer the following essay question. There is no need to rewrite the question at the beginning of your paper. Students who are able to coherently incorporate more of the required course material in their answers will receive higher marks. Your essay must NOT exceed six (6) pages. Answers are to be double-spaced with“normal” document margins (1” – 1.25” inches), using Calibri, font size 12, Times New Roman, font size 12 or Arial, font size 11. You must have a bibliography reflective of the works that you have cited or used in your research. You should not be using “outside” sources. It is expected that this exam will be your original work. You may NOT use my questions as I have written them in the context of your answer.

    2.Highlight point:
    Four questions correspond to 4 articles. No outside sources. Only use the sources for 4 articles or the note (which is CRM 2306.pdf). The notes is summary for professor, and she say we should use in our essay. Students who are able to coherently incorporate more of the required course material in their answers will receive higher marks

    3.Reference style:
    You must properly cite the articles that you are quoting or paraphrasing according to the American Psychological Association (APA 6th ed.) style.

    4. Explanation of the attachment
    the first word is the requirement; the other four PDFs are the assigned readings for the essay




Subject Sociology Pages 6 Style APA


The Social Structure of the Society: The Prison System

The social structure of our society encompasses the social and economic delamination of our society. These stratifications are inherently institutionalized and predetermined and they are a reflection of the moral standing of our society. Our prison systems are particularly a representation of the social structure of our society. It is crucial to note that incarcerated individuals go through numerous abuses and their treatment has become part of the policy structure of the system. Essentially, contemporary penitentiary practices only serve to provide a reflection and reproduction of the social structure.

First and foremost, it is important to take a look at the political and social structures that lead to the incarceration of individuals. When an analysis is conducted thereto, it is apparent that the imprisonment and incarceration of individuals are not only institutionalized, but it is also predetermined. The fact that it is predetermined points to the fact that it is indeed a mere reflection of the social structure of the society, as well as, the prison institutions. For instance, when the state absconds its responsibility of providing support to the citizens and instead takes part in the facilitation of the free market economy and focuses on developing a ‘culture of control’ instead of the provision of social services, welfare and employment opportunities, it becomes apparent that the system of incarceration is indeed institutionalized and predetermined (Pollack, 2009). In May 2004 for instance, George W. Bush is said to have addressed an audience at the “United States Army War College” wherein he provided a response to the Abu Ghraib prison scandal by stating that “A new Iraq will also need a humane, well-supervised prison system” (Whitmer, 2006, p. 171). Although his pronouncements may be interpreted as being sentimental and considerate, it is quite peculiar that the belief being portrayed is that the aboriginal and primary infrastructural developments that should be present in a new state are new prisons (Whitmer, 2006). Essentially, instead of talking about the establishment of new schools, provision of soccer fields, or vocational institutions, the US government was willing to fund the construction of new prisons as one of its first acts of good-will.  This is a reflection of the fact that the culture of incarceration is institutionalized and predetermined and it is a reflection of the social structure.

The preconceived and predetermined nature of our prison system is also apparent when reference is made to the economic and social backgrounds of the individuals who have been incarcerated. The ” law and order discoures and increasingly harsh criminal justice responses” work in tandem to bring about the incarceration of individuals who are economically and socially marginalized (Pollack, 2009, p. 113). This results in the utter overrepresentation of certain racial groups in the prison system (Pollack, 2009). In Canada, for instance, a study done in 2003 and 2004 revealed that a vast majority of women who are incarcerated were convicted of property offenses whereas only 3% were convicted of violent offenses (Pollack, 2009). As Pollack (2009) quoted Garland in his work, it has become apparent that “prison now functions as a repository for the mentally ill, drug addicts, and poor, sick people for whom the depleted social services no longer provide adequate accommodation” (Pollack, 2009, p. 114). This means that the prison system is conveniently regarded as the place where the government takes individuals who cannot sufficiently be economically accommodated in mainstream society. As noted by Morin (2000), in an article dubbed; “Doing Time,” a vast majority of the inmates in the federal penitentiary system in Canada had experienced family-related problems, as well as, academic problems (Morin, 2000). Ivan, an individual who had experienced incarceration therein was interviewed by the author and he stated thus regarding the events surrounding his incarceration;

My parents died when I was young, when I was very young, and I ended up in the foster homes and uhh… as a teen I was trying to find my family and came to Saskatoon to see my dad and… because of that I ran away from foster homes… and ended up under the…what’s called the Juvenile’s Delinquents Act and ended up in Kilborn Hall… from there graduated to jail” (Morin, 2000, p. 433).

From the above averments, it is very apparent that a prison is a convenient place wherein the government (by the help of the sanitization provided by policies and institutions) can escape the duty it owes to the people.

The penitentiary practices within the prison systems can indeed be said to be a reflection and reproduction of the social structure because of the element of power and subjectivity witnessed therein.  Prisons have actually become booming businesses in certain industrialized nations even as large industries take advantage of the huge pool of cheap labor that lies therein (Pollack, 2009). It is often argued that individuals go to prison to pay the debt owed to society (Foucault, 2012). The backing herein is that the offense committed not only injured the victim but also the society as a whole (Foucault, 2012). This conceptualization is then taken advantage of with the aim of receiving actual economic gains even if it is to the detriment of the individuals who are ideally meant to undergo rehabilitation. Essentially, the penitentiary practices are used for entrepreneurial purposes. The poor and the sick are locked out of mainstream society and they are forced to provide cheap labor. This is indeed a reproduction of the social structure because it is a replay of the illegal enslavement and debt bondage that took place in the centuries past. Although the society frowns upon such deeds as recorded in history, it continues to replay in the current age by dint of the penitentiary practices. As Foucault (2012) puts it, the inmates can essentially be said to be mere participants in the ongoing game of power in our prison systems and the social structure as a whole. Penal labor is not for the good of the inmate. It is described as, “the constitution of a power relation…a schema of individual submission and of adjustment to a production apparatus” (Foucault, 2012, p. 243). The individuals within the penitentiary system are participants in and products of the social structure. 

The prison system and penitentiary practices are often viewed as a modality of transforming individuals (Foucault, 2012). Indeed it has often been said that the role of incarceration is rehabilitation. However ironically, as illustrated above, influential corporations with greater social standing take advantage of the prison systems to exercise power and subjectivity over the individuals therein. Penitentiary practices are designed in a way to ensure that individuals are locked up, retained, and rendered docile and this is a reflection and reproduction of the mechanisms that tend to be applied in a social body (Foucault, 2012).

The famous saying goes thus; all animals are equal but some are more equal than others. This is an unwritten code in the social structure of society. Although we boast of living in times when life is no longer short, nasty, and brutish because the society has become highly organized by dint of our governance structures, certain segments of the population are still experiencing life as our ancestors did. As illustrated above, for instance, President Bush provided an assurance that “the scandal is the result of a few abuses committed by a few dishonorable soldiers” (Whitmer, 2006, p. 172). He was making reference to the tortious acts that were committed by American soldiers against Iraqi nationals in the Abu Ghraib prisons (Whitmer, 2006). Whereas the impression that was being created herein was that the scandal was an isolated incident that did not in any way reflect the core values of the American people, the contrary was indeed true and the acts were a reflection and a reproduction of the social structure.  For instance, after the sentiments expressed by the president, various media outlets blatantly spoke in favor of the torture and abuses that went on in the Abu Ghraib prisons (Whitmer, 2006). In an MSNBC talk show, Pat Buchanan endorsed the alleged torture and the commentators from FOX News reiterated the same thoughts. Essentially, the torture and abuses matted on accused individuals have become acceptable.

The past one century has been a period of unprecedented growth with respect to the scientific and technological arena. In order for the former to be achieved in particular, there is need for experimentation. Our species has indeed mastered this art of experimentation. The prisons have particularly been used towards that end. As Foucault (2012) puts it, “the prison has always formed an active field in which projects, improvements, experiments, theoretical statements, personal evidence, and investigations have been proliferated” (p. 235). This is indeed a reflection and a reproduction of the conduct that has become acceptable in the contemporary world. Essentially, the contemporary penitentiary practices are not focused on providing rehabilitation.

The prison has been described as an “exhaustive disciplinary apparatus” that “must assume responsibility for all aspects of the individual, his physical training, his aptitude to work, his everyday conduct, his moral attitude, and his state of mind.” (Foucault, 2012, p. 235). The system is essentially no longer interested in recognizing the individuality of the persons in prison by providing individualized rehabilitation. Instead, the focus is on the reproduction of a uniform form of conduct and way of life; just as would be done to animals. This is indeed a reflection of our social structure since in institutions such as schools and the army, participants are often taught the same things and are required to let-go of their uniqueness and world-view and adopt the ideologies being taught therein. It is, therefore, clear that what goes on in the prisons is a reflection and reproduction of our social structure.

The social structure of our society encompasses the social and economic delamination of our society. The stratifications of the prison system and the penitentiary practices therein are inherently institutionalized and predetermined. The political and social structure of the society is designed to ensure that certain individuals actually end up in prison. The economic and social backgrounds of the individuals who have been incarcerated coupled with the overrepresentation of certain racial groups speak to the fact that the stratification of the penitentiary system is predetermined. The prison system is the bedrock for the exercise power and subjectivity to the detriment of the incarcerated. It is a reflection of the core values of society. Essentially, contemporary penitentiary practices only serve to provide a reflection and reproduction of the social structure.




Foucault, M. (2012). Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.

Pollack, S. (2009). “You Can’t Have it Both Ways”: Punishment and Treatment of Imprisoned Women. Journal of Progressive Human Services, 20(2), pp. 112-128. Retrieved from


Morin, D. (2000). Doing Time.

Whitmer, 2006 B. (2006). ” Torture Chambers and Rape Rooms”: What Abu Ghraib Can Tell Us about the American Carceral System. CR: The New Centennial Review6(1), 171-194.











Appendix A:

Communication Plan for an Inpatient Unit to Evaluate the Impact of Transformational Leadership Style Compared to Other Leader Styles such as Bureaucratic and Laissez-Faire Leadership in Nurse Engagement, Retention, and Team Member Satisfaction Over the Course of One Year

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