LEARNING CRITERIA: KNOW THE STRUCTURE OF THE HUMAN BODY.
SCENARIO: you have been asked to explain the structure of the human body to a group of student nurses. you are reuired to communicate effectively and use appropiate anatomical language to dsicuss the anatomical structure of the body.
TASK 1: you need to produce a POWERPOINT presentation covring the basic structure of the human body including: CARDIOVASCULAR, RESPIRATORY, DIGESTIVE, EXCRETORY, NERVOUS, ENDOCRINE, MUSCULOSKELETAL, INTEGUMENTARY, REPRODUCTIVE.
– the interrelationship of body systems to maintain growth (icluding how growth can be affected). include, digestion and transport of nutrients, in proprioception (posisition & balance), pulmonary functioning, excretion, temperature regulation.
-Metabolism: chemical nature of body activity, rate at which energy used; changes in metabolic rate, eg, during exercise, over lifespan.
– growth: production of more cells during development and the increased size of cells, eg adipose tissue in obesity.
– tissue turnover/replacement eg in skin,hair,nails and the destruction of tissues from wear and tear; depletion of tissues ef from disuse, starvation; as increasing complexity (differentiation and specialization) e.g childhod and adolescent development interactions.
TO ACHIEVE A PASS:
1.1 – outline the main anatomical features of the human body.
1.2 discuss how the body systems interact to ensure the body functions and grows.
Also identify & apply strategies to find appropriate solutions & effective approach to study and research has been applied.
ALSO ADD PICTURE IF YOU CAN!
- The Human Body
- Interactions of the Anatomical Systems in the Body
- Source: Science Kids (2015).
- Basic Structure of the Human Body
- The four basic structures constituting the human body are cells, tissues, organs, and systems.
- According to Moore, Dalley & Agur (2013), two or more organs function jointly to form the various body systems as follows:
- The nervous system: consists of nerves that collect and transmit information to the brain and spinal cord for actions such as muscle contraction.
- Cardiovascular system: Consists of the heart that pumps blood throughout the body via arteries and veins to ensure nutrients and oxygen are delivered to tissues and waste products removed from the tissues.
- Respiratory system: Consists of the nose, trachea, and lungs that provide passage for air to the body and elimination of CO2.
- Digestive system: Consists of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, and intestines that carry out chemical and mechanical processes to break down food and provide nutrients.
- Excretory system: Consists of kidney, liver, and skin that eliminate urea, bilirubin, and minerals such as potassium respectively.
- Endocrine system: Consists of glands such as the pancreas, thyroid, pituitary, and the adrenals that produce hormones for body communication to change various functions.
- Musculoskeletal system: Consists of bones, tendons, ligaments, and cartilage that support the body and major organs. The muscles enable body movement.
- Integumentary system: Consists of the skin that contains and protect internal organs and function as a sensory organ. The system also consists of sebaceous and sweat glands as well as nails and hair.
- Reproductive system: Consists of the external genitalia and the gamete producing ovaries and testes. The role of the system is the production of offspring.
- The interrelationship of body systems to maintain growth
- The systems work to ensure that the body gets the nutrients it requires to maintain growth by carrying out digestion and absorption.
- The digestive system have enzymes that break down food to smaller particles that can be easily transported by the circulatory.
- Additionally, the nervous system regulates and coordinates digestion of food and absorption.
- McClements (2013) opines that the lymphatic system also participates in the transportation of lipids and fat-soluble nutrients.
- The proprioceptors in the joints and skeletal muscles helps in the identification of the body position to avoid accidents due to inaccurate body positioning (Pettorossi & Schieppati, 2014).
- The vestibular system provides a sense of spatial orientation and body balance to enable balanced movements.
- Pulmonary functioning is also enabled by the actions of the skeletal system, nervous system, and respiratory system.
- The intercostal muscles contract and relax to enable flow of air towards and out of the lungs.
- The nervous system stimulates the muscles to contract while the nose and trachea provides passage for the airflow.
- Lastly, the lungs provide vast surface for gaseous exchange.
- Excretion helps the body to get rid of waste products.
- The lungs, skin, liver, and kidneys participate in excretion of CO2, excess potassium, bilirubin, and urea respectively.
- Similarly, there are several organs coordinated to regulate body temperature.
- The sweat glands produce sweat that cool off the body while the liver regulates exothermic and endothermic processes to control temperature.
- Source: wiseGEEK (2016)
- Metabolism entails the chemical activities within the body that enables tissue replacement, reproduction, elimination of wastes, and food conversion to energy.
- The currency for the body’s energy supply is Adenosine Triphosphate, ATP (Gropper & Smith, 2012).
- The normal average Basal Metabolic Rate is estimated around 1800kCal per day.
- The body ensures that the energy supply is constantly adjusted to meet the demand.
- The liver can carry out gluconeogenesis to increase amount of body energy.
- Metabolic rate increases during physical activities to provide energy required to make the efforts.
- According to Terracciano et al. (2013), old age is associated with low BMR due to physical inactivity.
- Lastly, stress reduces BMR due to the disruption on the digestive system and reduced ingestion and absorption of food.
- Growth starts during the intrauterine life and stops when the body is adapted to survive in the surrounding environment, especially, at around the age of 25(Cameron & Bogin, 2012).
- Growth entails mitotic cell division and the size increases reversibly.
- The cells require nutrients and oxygen provided by the circulating blood to divide.
- Adequate removal of waste products is also indispensable for optimal growth.
- Rebucci& Michiels (2013) posit that it is the unregulated mitotic proliferation of cells that leads to cancers.
- Tissue turnover
- Tissues such as the hair, nails, and skin are constantly replaced by production of new cells.
- The skin acts as protection from external abrasions and suffers wear and tear.
- Therefore, its epithelial cells undergo frequent mitotic divisions to replace worn out cells.
- Bonaldo & Sandri (2013) opine that muscle atrophy is a common phenomenon when muscles are disused for a prolonged duration.
- As such, the muscles become smaller in size and less active.
- Development is the increase in tissue complexity to perform specific functions.
- During adolescence, the cells of the reproductive system continues to differentiate.
- For instance, differentiation of sperm and egg cells.
- Appropriate Solutions and Effective Approach to Study
- Create a study plan
- Sufficient stress management
- Use of summary notes
- Use of keyword mnemonics
- Conducting series of tests
for generalizing the study’s findings.