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    SCENARIO: you have been asked to explain the structure of the human body to a group of student nurses. you are reuired to communicate effectively and use appropiate anatomical language to dsicuss the anatomical structure of the body.

    TASK 1: you need to produce a POWERPOINT presentation covring the basic structure of the human body including: CARDIOVASCULAR, RESPIRATORY, DIGESTIVE, EXCRETORY, NERVOUS, ENDOCRINE, MUSCULOSKELETAL, INTEGUMENTARY, REPRODUCTIVE.

    – the interrelationship of body systems to maintain growth (icluding how growth can be affected). include, digestion and transport of nutrients, in proprioception (posisition & balance), pulmonary functioning, excretion, temperature regulation.

    -Metabolism: chemical nature of body activity, rate at which energy used; changes in metabolic rate, eg, during exercise, over lifespan.

    – growth: production of more cells during development and the increased size of cells, eg adipose tissue in obesity.

    – tissue turnover/replacement eg in skin,hair,nails and the destruction of tissues from wear and tear; depletion of tissues ef from disuse, starvation; as increasing complexity (differentiation and specialization) e.g childhod and adolescent development interactions.

    1.1 – outline the main anatomical features of the human body.

    1.2 discuss how the body systems interact to ensure the body functions and grows.

    Also identify & apply strategies to find appropriate solutions & effective approach to study and research has been applied.



Subject Biology Pages 5 Style APA


  • The Human Body
  • Interactions of the Anatomical Systems in the Body
  • Source: Science Kids (2015).
  • Basic Structure of the Human Body
  • The four basic structures constituting the human body are cells, tissues, organs, and systems.
  • According to Moore, Dalley & Agur (2013), two or more organs function jointly to form the various body systems as follows:
  • The nervous system: consists of nerves that collect and transmit information to the brain and spinal cord for actions such as muscle contraction.
  • Cardiovascular system: Consists of the heart that pumps blood throughout the body via arteries and veins to ensure nutrients and oxygen are delivered to tissues and waste products removed from the tissues.
  • Respiratory system: Consists of the nose, trachea, and lungs that provide passage for air to the body and elimination of CO2.
  • Digestive system: Consists of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, and intestines that carry out chemical and mechanical processes to break down food and provide nutrients.
  • Excretory system: Consists of kidney, liver, and skin that eliminate urea, bilirubin, and minerals such as potassium respectively.
  • Endocrine system: Consists of glands such as the pancreas, thyroid, pituitary, and the adrenals that produce hormones for body communication to change various functions.
  • Musculoskeletal system: Consists of bones, tendons, ligaments, and cartilage that support the body and major organs. The muscles enable body movement.
  • Integumentary system: Consists of the skin that contains and protect internal organs and function as a sensory organ. The system also consists of sebaceous and sweat glands as well as nails and hair.
  • Reproductive system: Consists of the external genitalia and the gamete producing ovaries and testes. The role of the system is the production of offspring.
  • The interrelationship of body systems to maintain growth
  • The systems work to ensure that the body gets the nutrients it requires to maintain growth by carrying out digestion and absorption.
  • The digestive system have enzymes that break down food to smaller particles that can be easily transported by the circulatory.
  • Additionally, the nervous system regulates and coordinates digestion of food and absorption.
  • McClements (2013) opines that the lymphatic system also participates in the transportation of lipids and fat-soluble nutrients.
  • The proprioceptors in the joints and skeletal muscles helps in the identification of the body position to avoid accidents due to inaccurate body positioning (Pettorossi & Schieppati, 2014).
  • The vestibular system provides a sense of spatial orientation and body balance to enable balanced movements.
  • Pulmonary functioning is also enabled by the actions of the skeletal system, nervous system, and respiratory system.
  • The intercostal muscles contract and relax to enable flow of air towards and out of the lungs.
  • The nervous system stimulates the muscles to contract while the nose and trachea provides passage for the airflow.
  • Lastly, the lungs provide vast surface for gaseous exchange.
  • Excretion helps the body to get rid of waste products.
  • The lungs, skin, liver, and kidneys participate in excretion of CO2, excess potassium, bilirubin, and urea respectively.
  • Similarly, there are several organs coordinated to regulate body temperature.
  • The sweat glands produce sweat that cool off the body while the liver regulates exothermic and endothermic processes to control temperature.
  • Metabolism
  • Source: wiseGEEK (2016)
  • Metabolism entails the chemical activities within the body that enables tissue replacement, reproduction, elimination of wastes, and food conversion to energy.
  • The currency for the body’s energy supply is Adenosine Triphosphate, ATP (Gropper & Smith, 2012).
  • The normal average Basal Metabolic Rate is estimated around 1800kCal per day.
  • The body ensures that the energy supply is constantly adjusted to meet the demand.
  • The liver can carry out gluconeogenesis to increase amount of body energy.
  • Metabolic rate increases during physical activities to provide energy required to make the efforts.
  • According to Terracciano et al. (2013), old age is associated with low BMR due to physical inactivity.
  • Lastly, stress reduces BMR due to the disruption on the digestive system and reduced ingestion and absorption of food.
  • Growth
  • Growth starts during the intrauterine life and stops when the body is adapted to survive in the surrounding environment, especially, at around the age of 25(Cameron & Bogin, 2012).
  • Growth entails mitotic cell division and the size increases reversibly.
  • The cells require nutrients and oxygen provided by the circulating blood to divide.
  • Adequate removal of waste products is also indispensable for optimal growth.
  • Rebucci& Michiels (2013) posit that it is the unregulated mitotic proliferation of cells that leads to cancers.
  • Tissue turnover
  • Tissues such as the hair, nails, and skin are constantly replaced by production of new cells.
  • The skin acts as protection from external abrasions and suffers wear and tear.
  • Therefore, its epithelial cells undergo frequent mitotic divisions to replace worn out cells.
  • Bonaldo & Sandri (2013) opine that muscle atrophy is a common phenomenon when muscles are disused for a prolonged duration.
  • As such, the muscles become smaller in size and less active.
  • Development
  • Development is the increase in tissue complexity to perform specific functions.
  • During adolescence, the cells of the reproductive system continues to differentiate.
  • For instance, differentiation of sperm and egg cells.
  • Appropriate Solutions and Effective Approach to Study
  • Create a study plan
  • Sufficient stress management
  • Use of summary notes
  • Use of keyword mnemonics
  • Conducting series of tests

for generalizing the study’s findings.  


  • Bonaldo, P., & Sandri, M. (2013). Cellular and molecular mechanisms of muscle atrophy. Disease models & mechanisms, 6(1), 25-39.
  • Cameron, N., & Bogin, B. (2012). Human growth and development. Academic Press.
  • Gropper, S., & Smith, J. (2012). Advanced nutrition and human metabolism. Cengage Learning.
  • McClements, D. J. (2013). Edible lipid nanoparticles: digestion, absorption, and potential toxicity. Progress in lipid research, 52(4), 409-423.
  • Moore, K. L., Dalley, A. F., & Agur, A. M. (2013). Clinically oriented anatomy. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  • Pettorossi, V. E., & Schieppati, M. (2014). Neck proprioception shapes body orientation and perception of motion. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 8.
  • Rebucci, M., & Michiels, C. (2013). Molecular aspects of cancer cell resistance to chemotherapy. Biochemical pharmacology, 85(9), 1219-1226.
  • Science Kids, (2015). Human Body Images: Human anatomy. Retrieved January 2, 2016, from http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/pictures/humanbody/humanorgans.html
  • Terracciano, A., Schrack, J. A., Sutin, A. R., Chan, W., Simonsick, E. M., & Ferrucci, L. (2013). Personality, metabolic rate and aerobic capacity.
  • wiseGEEK, (2016). What are the Different Metabolic Processes? Retrieved January 2, 2016, from http://www.wisegeek.org/what-are-the-different-metabolic-processes.htm


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