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    1. Address any one of the 8 Chapters in the Zadek book. Focus on one of the chapters assigned in “Power to the States: How Federalism 2.0 Can Make America Governable Again.” You can agree or disagree with any of the points asserted in the book. Again, I’d like you to be assertive in your writing but also be professional. Do not dismiss points you disagree with but refute them with quality arguments, facts, and sources. Do not mis-represent arguments that are made.

      Also, do NOT use long quotations even though you are discussing the book. You can merely represent the authors’ arguments in your own words.

      B) Voting Rights. Here, you have a lot of possibilities to discuss any issues involving voting rights. Please see the reading posted on UB Learns. You can discuss your view of the Constitutionality of HR1 / S1 that outline national standards for states to adopt in voting laws. Or you can address specific pieces of legislation passed by states like the law in Georgia. Whichever your preference, again please be assertive in your analysis but be professional. Avoid stating opinions as fact and try to not be hyperbolic.

      C) Pick Your Own Topic. Choose a topic of your own. If you choose this option, your topic must be approved by me. Please email me if you intend to choose your own topic. We can agree upon the specifics either through email or over the phone.


Subject Law and governance Pages 5 Style APA


Voting Rights

Constitutional amendments in the history of America has been one of the practical actions the country has done for a better America since world war II. Extensions of political wills and freedom of expression have successfully been attained to a greater extent in the united states of America. Voting is one of the significant contributors to the success of any by-laws of a country that has not been left untouched. Therefore, many Americans have a right to express their ideological and participation rights through a voting process. Since voting is fundamental in many governments globally, this study will discuss the voting rights of Americans concerning their constitution.

 At the beginning of the fight for freedom of expression in the united states, many people, such as the landless whites women, free blacks and slaves, could not participate in the voting process. The constitution has impacted changing these amendments that have now given every person the right to vote provided the person has the basic requirements stated in the constitution, close to a third of the constitutional amendments after rectification of the Bill of rights in relation to people’s ability to vote (Welsh, 2018).  The fifteenth amendment successfully granted the slaves a voting right for the which they were to vote for previous slaves and people of colour. In the constituent modifications in the nineteenth changes, women were given the right to vote. In contrast, the twenty-fourth and twenty-sixth amendments brought other changes that granted representation for the District of Columbia, interred poll/voting taxes and determined the voting age to be 18 years, lowered from the earlier older age. These amendments, such as making voting rights for all citizens, were an upward shift and fundamental part of American citizenship.

Today, various hinges on what best can be done to bring a balance in the voter access that safeguards fraud without undermining the sanctity of all citizen’s vote. This study focuses on the significant amendments that include the Fifteenth, Nineteenth, Twenty-third, Twenty-fourth and Twenty-sixth Amendments. These were the main key concerns in relation to political freedom and voting rights in the united states. The right of citizens in the united states is well explained as it shall not be denied or obliged by the US itself or by the previous situations of servitude (Trojbicz, 2019). Since the united states compromise many interrelated sets of people, there have been significant changes in the status of African Americans to participate in the voting exercise. Before this twenty-three per cent, voting-age blacks were nationally registered as voters but faced variant challenges in exercising their voting rights.

Recently, there are debates still encountering the Americans in amending further the constitution and increasing voter rights. These are inclusive of laws that would translate to the inclusion of voter ID as a constitutional document. People who are not original citizens are barred from voting in many federal governments. There are various challenges in the system of stating whether the restrictions imposed are appropriate for such exclusions in voting exercise or the constitution should be exposed to further amendments. Thinking back in the ages, terrible bloody wars enslaved Americans leading to the fourteenth amendments that granted Americans the right of citizenship. These are the initiating voting process amendment basics. There are still more to be considered since black Americans face challenges in expressing their democratic rights as citizens of the united states (Gist, 2017). Having the privilege of citizenship doesn’t guarantee a voting right and thus the need for more amendments. The rights also have some perfected measures that have been passed. They are found to be fundamental, such as the prohibition of the use of literacy tests during voting and other undisclosed methods that prohibit African Americans from participating in the voting exercise.

In conclusion, voting is the only way that operates in a legitimized governance with people voting not to their choices but the interests of the power holders. For voter turnout to be maximal compulsory voting would be applicable, while the fundamental right to vote should not be privileged. It is defined that the structure of representative democracy should not be waived, and voters should have all possible access to meet other classes of voters for the delicacy of protection and self-democracy. Peoples’ right to vote or not to vote should be a self-decided affair not influenced by any factor.




Gist, A. N. (2017). “I knew America was not ready for a woman to be president”: Commentary on the dominant structural intersections organized around the presidency and voting rights. Women’s Studies in Communication40(2), 150-154.

Trojbicz, B. (2019). Federalism and governability in Brazil: Oil royalties in dispute. Bulletin of Latin American Research38(5), 607-623.

Welsh, B. (2018). “Saviour” Politics and Malaysia’s 2018 Electoral Democratic Breakthrough: Rethinking Explanatory Narratives and Implications. Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs37(3), 85-108.



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