What is Dyslexia ?
Dyslexia is a learning disorder which is associated with difficulties in reading due to difficulties in recognizing speech sounds and learning how they relate to letters and words.
Characteristics Associated with Dyslexia
Characteristics for children before school include;
- Late talking
- Slow rate of learning new words.
- Problems with correct formation of words such as reversing sounds in words.
- Problems remembering or naming letters, numbers and colors.
- Difficulty learning nursery rhymes.
At school age, the characteristics include;
- Children are able to read well but below the expected levels.
- Problems in understanding and processing whatever the student hears.
- Problem finding the right word or forming answers to questions.
- Difficulty in remembering the sequence of things.
Characteristics associated with teens and adults include;
- Slow and labor-intensive while reading and writing.
- Frequently avoiding reading related activities.
- Mispronunciation of words
- Poor reading comprehension.
- Poor spelling skills.
- Poor eye-hand co-ordination.
- They have an inconsistent listening comprehension.
- Poor oral reading skills
- Language processing difficulties.
- The Phonological Theory
- The theory
- Relates dyslexia with impairment in the representation , storage and retrieval of speech sounds.
- Provides a direct link between cognitive deficit and behavioral problems.
- Comes from evidence that dyslexic individuals perform poorly on tasks involving phonological awareness.
- Validates that the disorder has its roots from general sensory, motor or learning processes and phonological deficit is one of the aspects resulting to dyslexia.
- Provides a biological claim that the Dyslexic’s cerebellum is mildly dysfunctional hence the development of cognitive difficulties.
- Cerebellum plays the role of motor control which helps in articulation of speech. Therefore, dysfunctional articulation would result deficiency in phonological representation.
- Cerebellum also plays the role of automizing overlearned tasks therefore, a reduced capacity to atomization would affect the phoneme of correspondence.
- The Disability Standard for Education provides clarifications on obligations of education and training providers hence seeking to ensure that disability students have full access and participate in education on the same basis as students without disabilities.
- Disability standard for education enables students with disability and their families to understand the rights under the standards.
- It also enables education providers to know their responsibilities while taking care of dyslexic students.
- Provision of handouts in lessons rather that asking students to take notes or copy from whiteboards.
- Provision of highlighters to enable learners to track text that has been read of highlight important information.
- Provision of access to assistive technology such as computers for pupils having difficulties in reading large amount of texts or write quickly.
- Provision of computers and tablets to type notes instead of writing.
- Australian Government. (2021). Disability Standards for Education 2005. Australian government department of education, skills and employment. Retrieved from https://www.dese.gov.au/disability-standards-education-2005.
- Falcao, T. (2018). Dyslexia- Disability, Employers’ knowledge and reasonable adjustments. Stephens Scown. Retrieved from https://www.stephens-scown.co.uk/employment/dyslexia- disability-employers-knowledge-and-reasonable-adjustments/.
- Ward-Lonergan, J., M. and Duthie, J., K. (2018). The State of Dyslexia: Recent Legislation and Guidelines for Serving School-Age Children and Adolescents With Dyslexia. Ashawire. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1044/2018_LSHSS-DYSLC-18-0002.
- Bailey, E. (2019). Creating a Dyslexia-Friendly Classroom. Thoughtco. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/creating-a-dyslexia-friendly-classroom-3111082.