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  1. Why guns are not a proven deterrent in the context of burglary.

    1.Assess why guns are not a proven deterrent in the context of burglary.

    2. Describe what is meant by the term environmental criminology.

    3.Identify any five methods of crime control that appear to be effective and explain why they are effective. Then, identify any five methods of crime control that appear to be failures and explain why they are failures.


Subject Law and governance Pages 2 Style APA


Environmental Criminology

Crimes happen every day across the country. Within the concept of criminology, there are several theories that explain the causes and types of different crimes. Worrall (2019) explains that the classical theory suggests that all individuals have the freedom of choice. Hence, committing crime is a choice. Punishment for the crime committed is intended to correct a flaw in the free will of the offender. In another theory, the positivist school of thought argues that people are different and are mostly influenced by their environment, essentially creating the foundation of environmental criminology. The latter theory holds that people are a product of their environment, and thus, any punishment would target correcting the flaw in their environment as opposed to their free will (Worrall, 2019). This paper purposes to describe environmental criminology, using the environment to fight crime and how environment criminology applies in a given scenario.


The positivist theory, under environmental criminology, posit that crime is as a result of influence, and can also be caused by the spatial environment of an individual (Worrall, 2019). This ideology encompasses the diverse attributes and unique qualities of the individual. For example, consider an individual living in the upper side of a town. This area has its share of young families and people who work in the corporate sector. In the other side of town, downtown, members living here are generally economically disadvantaged. The person living in the upper side of a town will drive to the lower side and procure some cocaine from the local sellers. However, an ongoing police operation arrest both the buyer and the seller, together with the remaining cocaine. After a few days, the seller is replaced and more buyers from the upper side of town drive to buy more cocaine. This is an example of how criminal activities are influenced by the environment. The offender will always be replaced to continue with the illegal operation.

Therefore, environmental criminologists are responsible for creating tools to combat crime based on the environment and geography of a specific area. Worrall (2019) defines this process as crime mapping, and usually entails noting incidences of crime within the locality. This information is important because it creates the foundation of the strategies that will be used to fight crime in the area.

Environmental criminology also supports the broken Windows theory (Worrall, 2019). This ideology posit that broken or un-fixed windows are bound to attract more broken windows. In essence, an area that is known for criminal activities will get worse if not addressed by the authorities. People also tend to withdraw from these areas due to fear, creating a vacuum that will be eventually filled with criminal activities.

Environmental Criminology in Action

From the above scenario, authorities arrested both the seller and buyer of cocaine. After the initial authorities, crime mapping is the next stage, and can be easily accomplished using specific computer programs. After noting the crime zone, the police proceed to analyze the difference between the upper and lower side of town. The conclusion is that both areas have a demand, the upper side demands the cocaine while the lower side has demand for money. The result is that the environment is suitable for criminal activities. The police then scouts for other areas within the downtown side that are potential environments for crime.





Worrall, J. L. (2019). Crime control in America: What works? Pearson Higher Ed.

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