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  1.  Youth Cultures    


    Write an essay about youth and culture


Subject Essay Writing Pages 13 Style APA


Youth Cultures

Youth and Drugs

The American subcultural theories advocate that youths in various parts of the United States opt to use drugs to a higher level and riskier than the elderly population. This behavior often results in substantial issues in both long- and short-terms. Moreover, according to British subcultural theories, youths often use different substances to serve a function or satisfy their needs.  The British subcultural theories indicate that a substance may meet specific requirements or needs through its effects, such as pleasurable feelings and agony relief (Genova, 2018). A drug may meet different wants or conditions through the representation linked with its consumption, often described as a sense of insurgence Blackman & Kempson, 2016). Whenever the topic of substance use is mentioned, it is always in connection with the youths. This notion may be logical. While there are substantial substance use concerns among other populations in the United States, most drug use commences during the youth stage. If an individual in the current generation has not started to use tobacco, liquor, or an illegitimate drug during the teenage phase, it is dubious he/she ever will.

 The British and the American subcultural theories advocate drug-use decisions, balancing the benefits against the disadvantages as perceived by the individual. On most occasions, youths use substances for various reasons that adult-use do, for instance, to dismiss anxiety or intensify pleasure (Williams, 2019). The American subcultural theories emphasize that some motives for drug consumption emerge from desires significantly associated with adolescent development. These reasons may be motivated by the longing to take menaces, show self-sufficiency and liberation, advance morals distinct from a societal and parental specialist, demonstrate acceptance into a peer group, pursue new and thrilling knowledge, and gratify inquisitiveness.

In these modern times, many youths in the United States live an atmosphere progressively accepting different drug use methods, both medical and non-medical. Researchers indicate that medicinal and substitute medication organizations develop and endorse the solution’s environment by ingestion (Hodkinson, 2016). According to the American subcultural theories, young adults’ access to media in the United States demonstrates that youths are overriding a globalized, Western-dominated modern ethos that opts to accept drug use. Moreover, American subcultural theories emphasize that alcohol and tobacco organizations in the United States, increase youths’ addiction by using influential marketing abilities to attract young adults.

According to the British subcultural views, personal and local influences also contribute to a youth’s choice concerning drug use (Woodman & Bennett, 2016). Young adults can be prejudiced significantly by their discernment of how widespread or normative drug use is in the present time. For instance, if a youth’s friend drinks or smokes, the young individual is more likely to make similar decisions due to peer pressure. Both British and American subcultural theories indicate that drug use decisions are associated with the perception of a significant substance’s risks. The British subcultural theories emphasize that as the supposed risk associated with drugs enhances, the use decreases. Bennett (2020) suggests that this theory’s inverse is factual, whereby a rising substance may encounter a “honeymoon period” due to limited information accessible concerning the risks and the harm of use.

The objective of government drug policies is to develop approaches that can prevent youths from using illegal drugs in the United States. Substance use is not a novel subject, and neither is the obligation for the administration to manage. In America, observing at over one hundred years of drug prevention, the state’s drug theories suggest that there has been a slight modification and contends that substance enlightenment continues to be inhibited by the restricted injunctions of the “no-use” sanction. On the other hand, in Britain, current policy innovations advocate for a novel emphasis, highlighting the suppleness of harm-reduction measures (Genova, 2018). For instance, the British administration website indicates that drug preclusion constancies are used to minimize the risks instigated by illicit drugs as evaluated by the Drug Harm Index. Moreover, British administrative policies advocate for parental, and community participation and cohesive treatment, encouraging that risk lessening is dominant (Sanders, 2016). This paper will evaluate the British’s normative education perspective and America’s role models perspective as the two subcultural theoretical perspectives of youths and drugs. The report will analyze the recent trends contributing to an increase in young adults using drugs in the United States of America (U.S.A.).

Tendencies and Patterns of Drug Use by Youths in the U.S.A.

Accurate comprehension of nature and the level of drug use by youths is considered critical to developing evidence-based feedback. The extent of comprehending young adult substance use can be better than ever; however, there are still various gaps. Some nations such as Britain are steering broad-based institute studies utilizing methodologies that permit evaluation. Currently, the U.S.A. is using approaches and strategies that endorse comparison education. Studies indicate that both British and American subcultural theories emphasize conducting a total population of drug-use surveys of individuals aged over fifteen years (Hunt & Joe-Laidler, 2016). According to the subcultural views, this permits evaluation of drug use among youths to be conducted on the least portion of the young adults. However, these extensive surveys necessitate substantial resources. As a result, many nations, including the G-8 members, do not regularly carry out national school or population surveys.

 A drug use survey for homeless youths or youths not attending schools is often not assessed in the current surveys. Drug use is often higher among young adults living out in the mainstream (Pawson & Kelly, 2017). However, due to complications in reaching them, surveys of these youths tend to include less, non-random samples; thus, the results cannot be applied to different populations (Pawson & Kelly, 2017). Researchers indicate that the only information on substance use among young adults may be from significant informants in some states. These officials can be adequately in association with the community to present an objective perspective. Still, there have been occasions in which youths who were learning the issue questioned adult informants’ observation. Nonetheless, in some regions such as America, significant informants can have only rough indicators such as drug supply seizures, among other substance use criminal charges.

The American subcultural theories indicate that late puberty gestures a significant evolution point for typical young adults. In the United States, minor school drug use is rationally well-recognized. According to the American subcultural theories, learners during the last years of secondary education often use alcohol and other substances such as marijuana. A considerable small number will have used tobacco and marijuana more than once for the last twelve months (Pawson & Kelly, 2017). Given that many young adults distinguish themselves far from the paternal authority in a setting where liquor and other drugs are frequently the centers of the activities and standards of consumption recognized in late secondary school, opt to prolong.

 Most university learners in the U.S. participate in beer consumption throughout the school years (Pawson & Kelly, 2017). A study conducted on post-secondary learners in Chicago indicates that 49 percent had a beer at least the past two weeks (Sanders, 2016). When youths are asked why they use beer, they present different reasons. These include the craving to drunk, cheer a significant event, overlook their uncertainties, and feel respectable. The British subcultural theories indicate that the idea of substance use among the youth can result in different complications, such as missing classes, criticism from others, arguments that lead to fights, and actions that an individual regret later (Sanders, 2016). Moreover, according to the American subcultural theories, males are more exposed to substance abuse in the United States than females. The most noticed trend in using other substances among university learners incorporates Ecstasy (Woodman & Bennett, 2016). Ecstasy has become a common substance besides alcohol and cannabis that youths use whenever in parties and attempting to get high.

Less is known concerning young adults that join the labor force immediately after finishing school. The British subcultural theories suggest that a considerable number of youths work in minor businesses. However, due to the frequency of drug use among the young adults and the tendency of minor companies to provide less attention to the staff’s health and safety concerns, drug use in the workplace has been reported as an aspect that significantly contributes to low performances at work among the young adults (Woodman & Bennett, 2016). Both American and British subcultural theories generally accept that youths who complete their education levels and settle down into conservative adult lifestyles minimize drug use. Nevertheless, they are perceived to be engineering an evolution into a fast-paced and too impulsive world. In a longitudinal survey conducted in the U.S.A., the results indicate that many young adults respond to the notion “work hard play hard,” a routine in which drugs are used as a source of fun and to unwind and manage the cumulative pressures. These youths are considered to be more likely to evade wide-ranging intoxication than at the age of eighteen. Still, even when work issues necessitate them to alter their use patterns to minimize adverse outcomes, many remain held to comparatively high youthful use-values into their early 20s (Woodman & Bennett, 2016). Another long-term survey indicated that individuals getting matrimonial and starting a household has a more significant influence on drug use outlines than joining the labor force.

British subcultural theories emphasize that there has been a development of theories that emerged from a postmodern situation, providing innovative terms. For instance, “Post-subculture, tribe and scene” can distinguish as aspects that play a significant role in youth’s substance use in the United States. In a location where youth substance use is extreme, the British utilize the subcultural theory of substance normalization. Sitting beside these alterations in cultural and social theory has led to administrative policy innovations towards managing youth’s lifestyle and intoxication measures (Genova, 2018). Correspondingly, illustrations of disordered alcohol and substance use by youths in the United States have attained extensive attention within media platforms. The current British subcultural theory concerning youths and drugs addresses aspects such as defending societies coping with drug-associated delinquency and anti-social performance, averting impairment to youths, presenting novel measures to substance use stoppage and social reintegration with public awareness movements, communication, and public participation.

British has implemented three subcultural theory outlines that align with normalizations of substance use. The first outline centers on the association between alcohol and drug. This outline is founded based on the Youth Alcohol Action Plan (Genova, 2018). The second outline centers on the Blueprint education program in learning institutions, and their overview focuses addresses the government banns on legal highs. Articles such as “What’s New, Tackling Drugs and Changing lives indicate that Blueprint education programs have been successful in informing the youths about the possible harms that can be experienced from substance use (Genova, 2018).  According to the normalization of substance harm subcultural theory, Blueprint education programs claim that the emergence of a new-fangled substance education program is evidence-based from a Universal survey.

A core approach of the normative program is the hypothetical model of normative edification. Researchers demonstrate that specific representations of substance teaching can attain an uncertain reduction in the use of drugs such as alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco (Williams, 2019). Therefore, normative knowledge is essential given that youths often over evaluate their peers’ drinking, smoking, and illegal substances. Recent studies indicate that normative teaching is an extremely crucial optimistic impact on awareness and character alteration (Genova, 2018). Moreover, Normative education offers openings within the syllabus to address attitude expansion and assess what influences the youth’s decision-making process.

Minimizing the Demand for Drugs by Youths

The United States encounters different complexities associated with substance use. Since youths experience various severe and long-term concerns related to drug use and abuse, a mutual collaboration between the government and the societies is essential for distinguishing the most operative approach to minimizing the demand for drugs among young adults (Williams, 2019). Both American and British subcultural theories emphasize that administrative entities should consider establishing measures to reduce youth drug use.  Studies concerning youths and drugs indicate that every nation and municipal necessitates its exclusive demand decrease approach that deliberates its certain conditions and the accessible resources (Williams, 2019). However, it is also regarded as possible to execute a general evidence-based practice. The evidence-based may be presented in two forms. These include a rising actuality of experimental survey and youths’ perspective and those that engage with them, attained from virtual subversive meetings. The American subculture theories emphasize that attentiveness is essential in rendering the evidence since the most reviewed reflections have not been simulated in more than two areas across the universe (Blackman & Kempson, 2016). According to the American and British subcultural theories concerning youths and drugs, there has never been higher quality and quantity of information concerning the drug demand decrease approaches and programs.

The approaches implemented should not oversee the indication connecting the economic and social welfare with the well-being of a community. According to the American subcultural theories, the association’s impact on drug abuse frameworks necessitates a supplementary comprehensive examination (Blackman & Kempson, 2016). Nevertheless, any social procedure that efficiently endorses unbiassed human progress by considering wide-ranging education, eminence jobs, and affordable housing can positively affect drug use forms. Drug businesses may consider developing this strategy surpassing their possibility of expertise, whereas others perceive it as an essential occupation. For instance, in the Philippines, several programs are incorporated in municipal organizing and sponsorship with youths and offer a series of revenue-generating and communal sustenance services, including daycare and early youthful edification.

Both British and American subcultural theories indicate that at the more comprehensive legislative standard, a mandate decrease approach should be integrated and balanced with exertions to minimize substance availability and supply, with each attaining similar resources and political endorsement (Blackman & Kempson, 2016). It is noted that youths are extremely sensitive to cost alterations and operating costs. The American subcultural theories suggest that cost increase and reducing demand are the furthermost efficient approaches to minimize drug use among the youths. While supply minimization attempts have proved to be unsuccessful in stopping the tide of unlawful drugs produced in or brought into various locations, effective banning can have the outcome of guaranteeing charges do not reduce (Blackman & Kempson, 2016). However, one drug’s achievements can affect complications with another, generating what is described as the “balloon effect” or unintentional possessions of deterrence.

Selective Prevention for Substance Abuse among Youths

Some youths and their families in the United States encounter significant complications linked to theoretical concerns, family disfunction, scarcity, and domestic history of drug use complexities, often comprise hereditary tendency (Blackman & Kempson, 2016). The objective of selective deterrence is to decrease the impact of various hazards and preventing or minimizing drug use complexities by developing coping approaches and other life abilities. The American subcultural theories indicate that children raised in challenging surroundings profit from selective deterrence involvements throughout pre-school and primary school periods (Blackman & Kempson, 2016). Longitudinal research addressing early childhood and primary school years demonstrate that programs uniting children and parents’ aspects, regularly comprising home visits, generate different attainments.

Regardless of the youth’s level of hazard, the young adults must be engaged in a deterrence model designing procedure and bestowing to their abilities. The attempts should educate trust and operating accommodatingly with reliable legislatures of the young adult populace and encourage them to evaluate the condition, distinguish significant objectives, a design where possible, present the program, and assess the outcomes (Blackman & Kempson, 2016).  According to the American subcultural theories, it is essential to guarantee adults’ supportive engagement to facilitate and oversee the program’s activities and familiarize them with other resources.

The British subcultural theories designate that participatory measures such as the methodology designed by the World Health Organization Global Initiative on Prevention of Substance Abuse maintain a significant potential. An engaging strategy is known to challenge sponsors to share authority, be receptive to novel ideas, listen to youths, and open up during different procedures rather than control the young adults. The normative approach is suggested in the British subcultural theory for various reasons (Blackman & Kempson, 2016). For instance, the normative strategy advocates that most youths find themselves using drugs due to peer pressure and lack of information regarding the harm they can experience by using different substances. According to this theory, young adults should be informed of the risks associated with substance use. British normative education theory corresponds with the American role model observation perspective, which elaborates that youths should be engaged with role models who educate them concerning drug abuse harms.


An increasing advantage may transpire when evidence-based programs are shared in a suitable message to youths throughout their childhood and adolescence. Evaluations display that program effects corrode as time passes, and program content desires to be replaced.  The American subcultural theories suggest that administrative entities should review the age approved for buying drugs such as alcohol. Nevertheless, the “more involvement is better” principle increases cost-effectiveness explorations. The harmonization of different incursions can be attained in several surroundings or within a particular group or accomplishment. For instance, the British subcultural theories indicate that institutions can consolidate classroom guidance, peer support programs, parent coaching, school systems, and mentoring for students at risk.

On the other hand, the British subcultural theories indicate that communities can regulate restoration programs, municipal monitoring, and locality sustenance programs to reduce drug demand. Both the American and British subcultural theories emphasize that youth participation necessitates administrative guidelines, such as conservatory panels or youth intervention, to enhance different objectives.  At a wider standard, permissible and supervisory actions such as communal, though the discrete strategies, may present uncertain effects. A rising fraction of youth’s plans executed nowadays is being developed based on comprehensive systematic evidence. Such advancement desires to be preserved.  According to the American subcultural theories, Administrations and other funding figures in the United States need to provide assessment superior precedence by delivering practical and monetary sustenance for this determination (commonly approved to necessitate a quantity equivalent to 10% of other prices). However, there are premature signs that preclusion programs for young adults can validate diffident cost-effectiveness, and deterrence programmers should consider this matter. The concentration and rate of the evidence-based programs defined in this piece differ extensively. There is an accord that youth at a higher-risk prerequisite supplementary widespread involvement; nevertheless, transitory (20-minute) encouragement interviews successfully with various young adults undergoing drug-use difficulties. 

Both the American and British subcultural theories indicate that outreach “information talks” have the latent to impact drug use among hard-to-reach youths. For this reason, programmers necessitate commencing collecting price information and considering results against charges. Doing this will be obligatory to regulate which expenses to include, such as costs for program resources, teacher exercise, instructor wages throughout program conveyance, capability practice, and study and assessment. Moreover, it will be essential to categorize the individual comportment to the expenses (the principal guarantor, companion interventions, or contributors).

By endorsing and considering the evidence-based effort, those incorporated claim that a decreased arena can deliver appreciated societies’ amenities. Exertions should be completed to unceasingly teach the community with precise information on tendencies as well as problems. Both the British and American subcultural theories indicate that societies and representatives worldwide incline to respond to supposed substance disasters with concentrated but short-lived retorts. To preserve long-term sustenance for the plans, and for petition lessening exertions normally, promoters need to convey that drug-use difficulties are neither a past predicament nor a matter to be discharged. As an alternative, it is an unavoidable portion of existence that is influenced by true accomplishment. Most prominently, the British and American subcultural theories emphasize that grown-ups and administrative entities are obliged to frequently retell themselves that young adults are their personal finest resource for addressing substance use problems. Therefore, British’s normative knowledge theory is essential given that youths often over evaluate their peers’ drinking, smoking, and illegal substances. Normative teaching is an extremely crucial optimistic impact on awareness and character alteration. Moreover, Normative education offers openings within the syllabus to address attitude expansion and assess what influences the youth’s decision-making process.




Bennett, A. (2020). Situating ‘Subculture’: On the Origins and Limits of the Term for Understanding Youth Cultures. In Researching Subcultures, Myth, and Memory (pp. 19-34). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Blackman, S., & Kempson, M. (Eds.). (, 2016). The subcultural imagination: theory, research, and reflexivity in contemporary youth cultures. Routledge.

Genova, C. (2018). Social practices and lifestyles in Italian youth cultures. Journal of Modern Italian Studies, 23(1), 75-92.

Hodkinson, P. (2016). Youth cultures and the rest of life: Subcultures, post-subcultures, and beyond. Journal of Youth Studies, 19(5), 629-645.

Hunt, G., & Joe-Laidler, K. (2016). The culture and subcultures of illicit drug use and distribution. Handbook on drug and society. West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, 460-81.

Pawson, M., & Kelly, B. C. (2017). Cannabis Use in Youth Subcultures. In Handbook of Cannabis and Related Pathologies (pp. e11-e18). Academic Press.

Sanders, B. (2016). Young people, clubs, and drugs. In Drugs, clubs, and young people (pp. 15-26). Routledge.

Williams, J. P. (2019). Subculture’s Not Dead! Checking the Pulse of Subculture Studies through a Review of ‘Subcultures, Popular Music and Political Change and ‘Youth Cultures and Subcultures: Australian Perspectives.’ Young, 27(1), 89-105.

Woodman, D., & Bennett, A. (Eds.). (, 2016). Youth cultures, transitions, and generations: Bridging the gap in youth research. Springer.


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