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  1.  Article Analysis



    1.Write the Significance of the Study for Chapter One: The significance of the study addresses who will benefit from the study and how they will benefit. The doctoral candidate articulates specifically how the study will contribute to the existing theoretical literature and/or qualitative and quantitative findings within psychology.
    The Significance of the Study should have an introduction reflecting your intent and describe the stakeholders of your study. Present a paragraph on each key area. Again, the Significance of the Study focuses on the contribution your work will make to the field of practice. How does your study extend the work of others and how do the stakeholders benefit?

    2. Describe Limitations and Delimitations for your study: Limitations reflect possible weaknesses in the study. The candidate must address the limitations over which he or she has no control. For various reasons, limitations of the study may be determined by such factors as a convenience sample meaning using participants that are not randomly selected which limits the generalizability of the results. The candidate must address delimitations factors for the study. They serve to narrow the focus of the study to focus on specific criteria or to delimit to specific groups or locations.
    Delimitations are the aspects of the study that you have built in to limit the study. Delimitations can include but are not limited to geographic location, population of focus, age, gender, or focus of research. You should have a clear differentiation between the limitations and delimitations in this section.

    3.Create a List of Key Terms and Definitions for Chapter One: All pertinent definitions and key terms within the scope of the study need to be operationalized. All definitions and key terms must be cited from peer-reviewed sources.
    Provide a listing of Definitions relevant to your study. Just a reminder that websites are not a source. Definitions should come from peer-reviewed articles. Words that are included are those that are specific to the field of study that are not used in a common manner. These words would not be found in general dictionaries or encyclopedias. The definitions here to not take the place of defining the words when they are first used.

    The 3 sections should be based on The Relationship Between Genetics and Mental Health with emphasis on 1. Which specific genetic alterations are associated with mental disorders?
    2. What specific neural circuits are associated with mental health functions?
    3. What percent of mental illness is genetic?
    4. How can genetic research on neurobiology and mental health be used to diagnose and treat mental disorders?


Subject Article Analysis Pages 8 Style APA


The Relationship between Genetics and Mental Health


Significance of the Study

Genetics form a critical aspect of healthcare, especially in the quest to examine genetic conditions and formulation of treatment methods that address specific concerns. In the 21st century, mental health has become a great challenge for the medical sector since the scope has become more dynamic to affect both adults and children. The increasing numbers create a need to identify the root causes that would subsequently help in designing appropriate ways of handling the problem. The intensity of mental disorders that severely affects the ability to function requires that psychotherapies should become more elaborate to get deeper into examining the role of genetics in this course. The study will then enhance a better understanding of the causes of psychiatric disorders to help improve treatment methods and develop personalized treatments in line with the genetic profiles.

The scope of this study requires the incorporation of several stakeholders who stand to benefit both directly and indirectly from the study. According to Cabassa et al. (2015), the management of mental health disorders requires a critical understanding of what is at stake through a detailed conceptualization of the stakeholders’ views and the greatest hindrances, despite the numerous studies on the issue. These stakeholders include health practitioners such as mental health specialists, primary healthcare providers, including nurses and doctors, as well as persons affected by mental illnesses alongside their families (Makan et al., 2015). Besides, Makan et al. also believe that civil society organizations, the media, policymakers, and donors are essential stakeholders that should be integrated into finding a lasting solution for mental disorders, primarily through DNA profiling (Makan et al., 2015).

In most cases, mental illnesses do not improve on their own; thus, it requires the individual suffering to seek medical attention or advice from the family doctor or psychologist.  Without treatment, mental disorders may escalate and become worse over time, which could result in severe problems for both stakeholders. As such, the primary benefactor of the study would be the families that are most vulnerable to mental illnesses. However, since most studies have failed to express the genetic correlation of mental disorders, this study aims at ensuring that vulnerable families – through a genetic profiling approach – are better prepared to handle the disorders. Suicidal thoughts are widespread, with individuals suffering from mental illnesses. This implies that there are situations when people commit suicide, but the family fails to identify it was a result of mental instability. Through genetic profiling, such cases can reduce as it can increase vigilance and preparedness to deal with the disorders. 

According to Cabassa et al. (2015), stakeholders, mainly the people with serious mental illness, are set to benefit significantly from the healthcare reforms that incorporate the relationships between mental health and genetics. Individuals suffering from mental disorders also have the risk of developing chronic conditions compared to other individuals, which makes it more critical to find a feasible solution. Primarily, they are set to benefit through improved access to quality of care. The transformation in psychology and healthcare demands a patient-centered approach, which, when embraced, enhances the functionality of the patients. Furthermore, the approach is critical in that the inherited disorders receive earlier psychiatric attention (Smoller et al., 2019). By handling the inherited cases, the family and relatives also benefit in the process because of improved efficiency in care and reduction of costs, which tend to occur when mental disorders worsen.

According to Arnett et al. (2019), there is a significant risk of transmission of major mental illnesses, including schizophrenia, depression, and autism, among others in the family. This is a result of the transmission of these conditions through the DNA in sequential order, as expounded by Bralten et al. (2018). Thus, to minimize complexity, the approach has to be broad and must examine the relationship between genetics and mental health. The family then benefits from this study through an improved understanding of this relationship, making it easier to engage family doctors and psychologists in examining the potential of every member suffering from mental illnesses. With this prior identification, management ultimately becomes more comfortable and less costly.

Despite the attempt by the existing literature to improve psychology through an examination of the cause and effect of mental illness, gaps still exist in the conceptualization of the relationship between these illnesses and genetic composition. Hence, with the help of the concepts already expressed in the existing literature, this study will further examine the causality of mental disorder through a genetic approach that will improve the efficiency and betterment of the containment methods. For instance, Ramaswami & Geschwind (2018) affirm that genetic studies are critical in making a progressive identification of risk genes for Autism Spectrum Disorder. They allude that this is possible through the clustering of patients through their genetic background by a genotype-first approach (Jansen et al., 2018). Since genetic studies can help make such progress, it is also possible to develop a precise relationship that can ultimately inform clinical care.

The present literature in psychology and healthcare concerning mental health will, therefore, make it possible to realize the necessary developments in the sector, especially in line with the demands of making psychology more effective. According to Smoller et al. (2019), the evolving classification of psychopathology has significant effects on the development of functional healthcare that meets the demands of the patients. Thus, by highlighting the clinical challenges in this study, it will be essential to address the underlying concerns such that the primary caregivers can also have a deeper understanding of their role in this progression. Furthermore, it will go beyond the classification of the most common cases with genetic composition to incorporate a mechanism through which the psychiatrists can help break the chain. Healthcare should be not only affordable but also effective. Therefore, the study will identify the gaps and missing links from the previous literature and other psychology theories that help explain mental disorders (Albert, 2017). As a result, it has to incorporate both theory and practice, with more precision in contemporary health conditions.

Limitations and Delimitations

Despite the intentions to bolster an understanding of the relationships between genetics and mental health, this study should be viewed in light of its limitations and strengths. That is, like every other research, this study is subject to several technicalities, which are challenging to eliminate, but the whole delimitation is essential. Since the study intends to use a purposive sample from a single urban city in the United States, other stakeholders may significantly disagree with this approach. However, because of financial and time constraints, drawing samples from a large population may prove unrealistic, which is the reason for having samples from a single city. Besides, the cross-sectional design can also be a hindrance in the quest to capture changes in stakeholders’ perceptions.

Moreover, sample size problems may also be a significant problem for the study because of generalizability issues. However, the study will ensure the sample size is large enough to provide proof of concept. The reality is that having samples across the globe or across the country may be too demanding and unrealistic, which means the need to settle for a relatively large number that can support the quest. Additionally, the method of data collection, especially when seeking stakeholder views and preferences may hamper the quality of data and subsequent outcome. The data collection problems could also result in reporter bias and misinterpretation of the data, which could lead to difficulty in attaining the intended objective. Nonetheless, the study minimizes this through validation of the data collection methods and ensuring generalizable population samples.

Despite the limitations, the study will increase generalizability and applicability in psychology through the development of a narrow focus in sampling and population choice. The research’s focus will be to determine the relationship between the two primary concepts, genetics, and mental disorders. Contrary to most studies, the association is necessary since there are significant levels of inconsistencies in existing literature concerning hereditary mental illnesses. That is, it has proven that other factors also affect the possibility of having mental illness within the family. The method chosen must then be pervasive and detailed.

Moreover, the study will have a sample that cuts across every age bracket; namely, the children, adolescents, and adults. This is essential in drawing a correlation between DNA profiling and mental disorders. Primarily, this scheme helps identify other factors affecting the transmission of mental health, especially within the family without necessarily being biological. With that identification, the relationship would be more precise and generalizable.




List of Key Terms and Definitions

  1. Pathophysiology

This refers to the functional changes that accompanying a particular disease or disorder (Pusceddu & Del Bas, 2020).

  1. Psychiatric Disorder

Psychiatric disorder defines the mental illnesses diagnosed by a mental health professional with common symptoms, including lack of interest on previously cherished activities, great disturbances on your thinking, moods, and behavior (Cabassa et al., 2015).

  • Autism Spectrum Disorder

Refers to a health condition that has a strong correlation to the brain development, thereby influencing an individual’s perception and socialization thus causing communication and social interaction problems (Bralten et al., 2018).

  1. Genotype-first approach

This is a strategy used in associating specific genotypes to apparent clinical phenotypes of a complex disorder, which then helps in the establishing disease causality (Jansen et al., 2018). 




Albert, P. R. (2017). The adaptive brain in mental health: Overcoming inherited risk factors. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, 42(1), 3-5.

Arnett, A. B., Trinh, S., & Bernier, R. A. (2019). The state of research on the genetics of autism spectrum disorder: Methodological, clinical and conceptual progress. Current opinion in psychology, 27, 1-5. https://sci-hub.tw/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2018.07.004

Bralten, J., Van Hulzen, K. J., Martens, M. B., Galesloot, T. E., Vasquez, A. A., Kiemeney, L. A., … & Poelmans, G. (2018). Autism spectrum disorders and autistic traits share genetics and biology. Molecular psychiatry, 23(5), 1205-1212. https://www.nature.com/articles/mp201798

Cabassa, L. J., Gomes, A. P., & Lewis-Fernández, R. (2015). What would it take? Stakeholders’ views and preferences for implementing a health care manager program in community mental health clinics under health care reform. Medical Care Research and Review, 72(1), 71-95. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4368059/

Jansen, S., Hoischen, A., Coe, B. P., Carvill, G. L., Van Esch, H., Bosch, D. G., … & Van Bon, B. W. (2018). A genotype-first approach identifies an intellectual disability-overweight syndrome caused by PHIP haploinsufficiency. European Journal of Human Genetics, 26(1), 54-63.

Makan, A., Fekadu, A., Murhar, V., Luitel, N., Kathree, T., Ssebunya, J., & Lund, C. (2015). Stakeholder analysis of the Programme for Improving Mental health carE (PRIME): baseline findings. International journal of mental health systems, 9(1), 27. https://ijmhs.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13033-015-0020-z

Meier, S. M., & Deckert, J. (2019). Genetics of anxiety disorders. Current psychiatry reports, 21(3), 16. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11920-019-1002-7

Pusceddu, M. M., & Del Bas, J. M. (2020). The role of the gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of mental and neurological disorders. Psychiatric Genetics.

Ramaswami, G., & Geschwind, D. H. (2018). Genetics of autism spectrum disorder. In Handbook of clinical neurology (Vol. 147, pp. 321-329). Elsevier. https://sci-hub.tw/https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-63233-3.00021-X

Smoller, J. W., Andreassen, O. A., Edenberg, H. J., Faraone, S. V., Glatt, S. J., & Kendler, K. S. (2019). Psychiatric genetics and the structure of psychopathology. Molecular psychiatry, 24(3), 409-420. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41380-017-0010-4


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