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    1.Rydzewska, E. (2012). Destination unknown? transition to adulthood for people with autism spectrum disorders. British Journal of Special Education, 39(2), 87-93. https://lesa.on.worldcat.org/oclc/802920727

    2.Densmore, A. (2015). What if the diagnosis of autism is wrong? Available: https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/listen-the-kids/201508/what-if-the-diagnosis-autism-is-wrong

    3.Trembath, D. (2015). Children with autism aren’t necessarily visual learners. Available: http://theconversation.com/children-with-autism-arent-necessarily-visual-learners-42758?sa=pg2&sq=autism&sr=10


Subject Nursing Pages 7 Style APA


Autism Case Study: Pat Scenario

Section 1

The Case

The case is about Pat, a 60-year-old male who has been struggling with autism since he was young. Despite coming from an affluent family and living in a wealthy neighborhood, Pat left school at 16 because of bullying. His school peers teased him, making him isolate himself during break time. Pat had a different appearance compared to other students despite having similar uniform outfit. He was always untucked and chewed the collar of his shirts whenever he was experiencing depression.Thus, his peers found a reason to intensify mockery on him. Pat was a clever student in class, but his potential was not fully exploited since he was hardly engaged. His interest in answering and asking questions was thwarted by the harmful activities of his classmates towards him. As a result, he opted to keep to himself by reducing class participation. He found it difficult to make social connections with his peers. He felt anxious and always sat back at his desk to keep him away from the troubles of his peers. However, this left him feeling very lonely.He hardly understood why he felt so different from the other learners. Primarily, he was uncoordinated and showed no interest in any physical activity. He was interested in participating in games, but his anxiety increased immediately he joined others in the game. Primarily, he found it difficult to take instructions from other people.

During his time in high school, he found it difficult to get out of bed and attend school. He had fallen into a deep depression. However, a family friend advised his parents to come to his workplace since Pat was good with computers. He had shown interest in computers since he was a young boy.Pat became an expert in computers and started repairing computers in offices and designing computer Part managed to move up the cooperate chain in the management due to his interest in redesigning current machines. The company was bought, and leadership changes occurred. The new CEO was hard on workers making Pat experienced anxiety attack. It came at a time that Pat was already experiencing a tiresome home life. He was married and had twin daughters with autism. He involved in arguments with his wife resulting to more instability. Thus, he is showing signs of depression and anxiety. He started avoiding social interaction, especially with his colleagues at work.

The Development of Adulthood Support Knowledge in Autism

The development of support knowledge for adults with autism has evolved for many years. What is currently practiced is a result of experimental trials based on scientific research that has been conducted for many years (Thompson, Bölte, Falkmer & Girdler, 2018). Patterns of abnormal behavior were first described by Leo Kannar in 1943. The discovery increased social awareness and care for adults with autism has changed significantly. For instance, the social awareness for people with autism has increased. However, there is no biological care for autism diagnosis. The behavioral symptoms of those who are affected are used to determine of is an individual has autism or not. Most early clinicians linked in adult autisms to schizophrenia. Thus, they recommended institutionalization as the best option for the treatment of the condition. They worked with Freudian ego psychological paradigm (Thompson, Bölte, Falkmer & Girdler, 2018). Professional social support was first used in 1967. It was mostly used to help families with children suffering from the condition. There is little evidence that social care for adults with autism was used.

The period of 1970 and 1990 saw a robust scientific improvement in adult knowledge development in autism. It was known as neurodevelopment condition that affected the growth of brain and the nervous system (Thompson, Bölte, Falkmer & Girdler, 2018). Thus, there was more expansion of inclusion and recognition criteria for the diagnosis and treatment, especially among the adults. Currently, various research have tried to explain the knowledge on adult autism and possible intervention procedures, for instance, social cognition training using computer training aspects have been used widely to reduce anxiety and stress among adults with autism. Group social skills interventions have also been found to be effective. Medication using drugs has also been an area of robust research(Thompson, Bölte, Falkmer & Girdler, 2018). Serotonergic drugs are used to reduce repetitive behavior in adults. Nonetheless, psychological interventions are also used to prevent the effects of autism.

The Key Issues of the Case

Pat is demonstrated characteristics of an autistics child early in life. His inability to form positive relationships with other learners suggests that he hardly understood what his peers were doing. However, his teachers hardly realize the condition. He looks different from other learners despite having the same uniform. He liked to chew his collar whenever he is depressed and finds himself alone most of the time. When he joins high school, he shows interest in physical activities but develops anxiety when he starts doing it. Besides, Pat finds it difficult to wake up from his bed and attend school and he quits school. Patwas intelligent, probably more than most of his classmates. However, he did not express himself properly due to negative pressure from his peers. Pat quits school and decides to stay at home. However, he found something he was interested in doing, and develops a career from it. He lives a happy life and symptoms of depressions ceases to affect him. Besides, he is able to make positive relationship with colleagues. However, when his organization comes under new management, the new CEO is hard on employees and begins to experience depression and anxiety. Besides, he is married and has two autistic daughters. Furthermore, he frequently argues with his wife and finds himself alone most of the time.

The Rationale for how Adulthood Experiences can affect an Individual with Autism and their Carer

Adulthood experience has significant impacts to people with autism. They undergo through certain stressful conditions that are likely to intensify the effect of the condition on them(Anderson, Sosnowy, Kuo & Shattuck, 2018). For instance, stressful conditions at world may result to feelings of depression. Family life, such as relationship with the spouse, can also influence the reoccurrence of autistic symptoms among adults. For instance, Pat was having a challenging relationship with his wife and this affected his well-being as an adult with autism. Nonetheless, his relationship with his colleagues began to be complicated and he found himself alone most of the time when he started to encounter pressure from work due to change of management(Rydzewska, 2017). Thus, carers are likely to have hard time dealing with reoccurring symptoms of autism in adulthood.

Section 2

Changes and Challenges throughout Generations

There is little information concerning adult autism since the condition mostly affects children. However, researchers have identified generational changes that occur for adults with racism. Many changes in the treatment of autism have been realized through generations and there has been significant success in the process (Densmore, 2015). The understanding of autism in adults is not as old as that in children. Thus, it is a relatively new knowledge in psychology. Problems experienced by childrenexperiencing autism changes as they grow and become adults (Densmore, 2015). The level of understanding of the condition and the extent of management also increases. Among adults. However, adults experience new set of challenges. They are more exposed to trigger factors that enhance manifestation of symptoms of the condition (Thompson, Bölte, Falkmer & Girdler, 2018). Pressure from work and family issues are examples of triggers that influences response of adults to autism. Elderly people experience the same conditions as those experienced by children suffering from autism (Thompson, Bölte, Falkmer & Girdler, 2018). The changes in generational knowledge have helped in management of autism, especially among adults. Autism is genetic condition. Thus, parents can pass it to their children, and into subsequent generation making it a challenge to manage. 

Support Needs Required for the Individual and Carer Using a Person First Lens in Relation to Adulthood

The support needs for adults with autism differed from that of children. For instance, adults have the option of seeing psychologists that are experts in autism management and treatment to help them manage their conditions using various psychological therapies(Aljadeff-Abergel, Schenk, Walmsley, Peterson, Frieder & Acker, 2015). Nonetheless, they can consult social work and psychologists for groups and individual therapy. It is important to get counseling on regular basis to help in understanding various management practices. Career difficulties can result to challenges due to career problems. Therefore, getting a career vacation and rehabilitation can be crucial to reducing effects of the condition. Applied behavioral analysis is used to care and treat adults with autism(Chia, Anderson & McLean, 2018). The technique uses series of trials to encourage sequential learning. Answers are awarded for correct behavior exhibited by the Patients.

The Patient uses the immediate environment to provide pivotal skills such as motivation to learn. The adults can undertake social skills training to develop social skills that enable them to connect with other people successfully. The training provides basic skills such as conducting a successful conversation(Trembath, 2015). Cognitive behavioral therapy is crucial for adults with autism. The care teaches Patients concerning connections between behavior, feelings, and thoughts. The training is crucial in identifying thought process that triggers negative behavior among people. It is best suited for the management of anxiety(Robison, 2019). Occupational therapy can be conducted on adults to help them with self-care skills such as cooking and cleaning among others.

Section 3

I believe that the changes in generational knowledge have been crucial in understanding the occurrence of autism, and appropriate measures to reducing the same in both children and adults. Initially, autism was understood as an aspect of schizophrenia, which is a mental condition (Rydzewska, 2017). Thus, the treatment was based on the same. However, research indicated that it is a brain and neurological condition. The information has been crucial in managing the conditions since it is now well understood and analyzed. I think that various intervention mechanisms that have been scientifically tried and approved as essential ways of managing the condition is due to the change in generational knowledge (Rydzewska, 2017). For instance, cognitive behavioral therapy came because of understanding of human behavior and what results to the same. Thus, therapists are able to use the mechanisms to address cases of autism.

Change in generational knowledge has enhanced the understanding that autism is genetic and can be transferred from parents to children. Therefore, parents with autism starts to identify symptoms of the condition among their children early enough to ensure sufficient management of the condition (Rydzewska, 2017). The relationship between environmental factors and the condition has also increased the understanding and management of the condition. I believe that the changes in diagnosis criteria of autism through time are due to change in generational knowledge concerning the condition. The latest diagnosis criteria DSM-5 further changes the definition of autism (Rydzewska, 2017). It includes the age of onset criteria and various symptoms. Thus, it is more accurate in assessing the condition compared to the earlier diagnosis criteria.


Aljadeff-Abergel, E., Schenk, Y., Walmsley, C., Peterson, S. M., Frieder, J. E., & Acker, N. (2015). The effectiveness of self-management interventions for children with autism—A literature review. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders18, 34-50.

Anderson, K. A., Sosnowy, C., Kuo, A. A., & Shattuck, P. T. (2018). Transition of individuals with autism to adulthood: a review of qualitative studies. Pediatrics141(Supplement 4), S318-S327.

Chia, G. L. C., Anderson, A., & McLean, L. A. (2018). Use of technology to support self-management in individuals with Autism: Systematic Review. Review Journal of Autism and developmental disorders5(2), 142-155.

Rydzewska, E. (2017). Destination unknown? transition to adulthood for people with autism spectrum disorders. British Journal of Special Education, 39(2), 87-93. https://lesa.on.worldcat.org/oclc/802920727

Robison, J. E. (2019). Autism prevalence and outcomes in older adults. Autism Research12(3), 370-374.

Densmore, A. (2015). What if the diagnosis of autism is wrong? Available: https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/listen-the-kids/201508/what-if-the-diagnosis-autism-is-wrong

Trembath, D. (2015). Children with autism aren’t necessarily visual learners. Available: http://theconversation.com/children-with-autism-arent-necessarily-visual-learners-42758?sa=pg2&sq=autism&sr=10

Thompson, C., Bölte, S., Falkmer, T., & Girdler, S. (2018). To be understood: Transitioning to adult life for people with Autism Spectrum Disorder. PloS one13(3), e0194758.













Appendix A:

Communication Plan for an Inpatient Unit to Evaluate the Impact of Transformational Leadership Style Compared to Other Leader Styles such as Bureaucratic and Laissez-Faire Leadership in Nurse Engagement, Retention, and Team Member Satisfaction Over the Course of One Year

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