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  1. SAMPLE 43


    Based on 《out》(a japaness writer), write an essay of 3000 words. Then, the viewpoint and topic are self-made, the course about Japanese culture and history. Therefore, the viewpoint should be close to humanities.

    Please send back the topic and thesis within 10 HOURS. When it get approved, you can start the essay.

    You should write about the book named which is done by japanese writer.

    You need to find out a topic and thesis in terms of the book and in the final paper to do some research to ensure your thesis.

    It should be related to japanese culture

    Out (アウト) is a 1997 Japanese crime novel written by Japanese author Natsuo Kirino




Subject Essay Writing Pages 13 Style APA


Challenges that Woman in Contemporary Japanese Society Face

For decades, literature acts as a mirror of the society through portrayals of society’s cultures and way of life.   ‘Out’ under the authorship of Natsuo Kirino focuses on the human socialization, immorality, self-guilty and criminality entangled in the human race. Worth mentioning and importantly is the depiction of women and the challenges that a contemporary woman goes through. Studies conducted by other authors, seem to share sentiments raised by Kirino in her book “Out” supporting the view that biological differences based on gender play a role in the challenges faced by women in the Contemporary Japanese Society.

Studies on Women in Contemporary Japan

To have a clear picture on the roles of women and challenges they undergo, the starting point is to have a look at the brief history of female gender roles. Like any cultures such as Korea and China heavily influenced by Confucians ideals, Japan is not an exceptional, as the focus is more on the family.  Men are heads of the family while women depended on men. Women marry, produce heirs and oversee the households (Kincaid, 2016). Marriage in the ancient Japanese was arranged as family enters into contract.  For instance, during the reign of Tokugawa Shogunate (1602-1868), women did not legally exist (Kincaid, 2016). They were not to allow them to own any property and were to subordinate to men in all way. The challenge during this period was the lack of equality. The blatant discrimination and treatment of women as third class citizens did show the high level of inequalities in the society.

However, women have been in the fore to champion for equal opportunities and representation. The number of women in learning institutions, employment and even in political environment is a demonstration of the gains achieved today’s ending discrimination. For instance, unprecedented number of women continues to join labour force. In 1987, 40 percent of the labour force was women at 23.4 million. Women during that year accounted for 59 percent of the increase in employment for 1975 to 1987.  Similarly, participation of women in the labour force in terms of ratio of working and above fifteen years increased from 45.7 percent in 1975 to 50.6 percent in the 1991 with expectation that it would reach above 50 percent in 2000.

According to Gretchen & Vilma & Larissa (2011), Japanese women have lived on the periphery rather than in the mainstream experiencing a long history of struggles. The passage of the Equal Employment Opportunity Law in 1985 lead to greater polarization among the Japanese female workers and failed to completely eradicate gender gaps in the workplace.  According to Fujimura-Fanselow (as cited in Gretchen & Vilma & Larissa, 2011), a little progress has been made, as regression has happened in certain aspects of Japanese women lives.  This conclusion, rhymes with what Kirino aspire to bring out in terms of the place or women and challenge the y face. The work environment has seen some changes but not enough progress has been achieved. Even though certain quarters of the society have realised the fruits of the Equal Employment Opportunity law, there is much to be done to help address the challenges that women go through. Many of the women that seem to be outspoken and self-minded experience challenges and many a times they are send home. A good case is Masako

According to Mali (2007), Japan has witnessed tremendous changes in women employment in Japan.  During the period of economic burst in 1990s, Japan experienced labour shortages and increase in cost of living, which necessitated most women to undertake part time employment after marriage to help supplement household income. In 1980s, unemployment rate moved within the band of two percent and 2.8 percent. This figure increased to 2.2 percent in 1990 reaching a record of 5.5 percent in 2002 (Mali, 2007).  Female rate of unemployment exceeded the male rate of unemployment, but the trend was reversed in 1996 when male unemployment rate started to outstrip that of women. By the year 2003, the male unemployment rate was at 5.5 percent compared to that of woman that stood at 4.9 percent (Osawa, 2004). Furthermore, Osawa (2004) notes that wage ratio between men and women have historically and still remain in favour of men. There has been a narrowing of the gender wage gap which in 1990 was 60.2 percent and improved to 66.8 percent in 2003.

Similarly, women labour participation rate has reached averagely 40 percent of the total paid hour force, showing an improvement in number of women that are working for considerably long hours (Kumamoto-Healey, 2005).  The progress of women in terms of employment and working is also exemplified in the book. Kirino brings out the aspect of women securing employment in various companies.  Masako is one of the women that worked for a financial company before she got employed to the boxed company. Even though, she was laid off because of her ego and personality, which was perceived to be her misdoing, it shows the positive developments in elevating and uplifting women.

Gender inequality is yet another challenge, facing women specially those seeking to make a mark in the political field. In japan, being male dominated society, majority of the politicians are male. However, women are increasing ascending to political positions (Dalton, 2015). Women in political circus have to play by rules and always exemplify men like behaviours and acts. This portrayals would guarantee them re-election or appointment. It is also important that women are incorporated into key aspects of governance because; they have the qualifications equivalent to their male counterparts.

Women and Hard labour

How interesting is it to interact with Kirino book, “Out”, where she speaks her mind incorporating the experiences of others within the environment.  Humanity and culture stand out, despite the highly volatile, violence and harsh experiences that the author shares with the audience. It is at some point a horror story that instils fear and anguish. However, in all these, the message is succinctly conveyed to trigger action, inform and educate about the contemporary Japanese woman and some of the challenges that still engulf theme. Furthermore, Kirino is aware of the roles and the position of woman in Japanese society. Even though one could be fooled to think about the changing lifestyles and freedoms, out there are no such freedoms per se.  Parents have a major role to nurture and ensure good upbringing.

One of the challenges that a modern woman faces is hard labour. Woman nowadays have to work extra hand to fend and support their families. The husband role as the sole family provider has vanished bringing women on board. The responsibility is an additional reasonability that burdens a woman of the contemporary world. Apart from working, women have the responsibility to attend to the household and the husband. In this book, the woman named Masako is devoted and committed (Kirino, 1997). She first worked in a financial company before relocating to bento box factory (Kirino, 1997). She represents a contemporary woman who has resolved to work extra hard.

Women as Household Managers

The current men have neglected their responsibilities as protectors and providers.  It is unfortunate that the men that society entrusted to support and protect their women have totally failed from the noble course. The husband to Yayoi called Kenji is not taking up his responsibilities with keenness. He spent most of his time spent in bars and in drinking spree with friend and colleagues (Kirino, 1997).  The husband is an absent father. The failure to take up responsibility paves way for unimaginable thinking (Kirino, 1997). The genesis of evil thinking that culminates to the brutal murder of her husband is the failure to act and take responsibility of the family.

Psychological Stress and Distress among Women

Women go through tuff psychological stress that leads to depression and mental health issues.  The skewed status of mind prompts taking of certain actions that later become regrettable. The perception of not being valued is a mental torture to women. They feel dejected and less important and this propels them to engage in bad things that have a negative implications or endings. A good example of such women is Kuniko who admires good things but has no money to fulfil her desires. This leads her into bad debts (Kirino, 1997).

Poor Working Conditions

According to Osawa (2004), positive progress has been made in terms remuneration and terms of salary package for women. In this contemporary time, women have attained skills and knowledge and have the competencies and capabilities that match those of men. This means that when it comes to hiring, their negotiating power equals that of men.  Most of the careers that women pursue have similar terms with those of male. The gap has gone down over the years. This however, is a contrast to Kirino’s thinking. This difference is because the target that Kirino focuses is the low incoming earners such as Yayoi and other colleagues (Kirino, 1997).  Women working as labourers and other trade crafts tasks, clerical duties usually receive low income/salaries comparable to what educated women earn.

Similarly, women are forced to work for long hours for their livelihood. Without work, then life can be unbearable, as one may lack stream of income to fend for themselves. Indeed, in the novel, Out’ the four women Yayoi, Masako, Yoshie and Kuniko were united brought together during their night shift at a factory that makes boxed lunches (Kirino, 1997).. This in itself is a depiction of a Japanese society that gives opportunities for women to contribute to the society and to get wages for their families. Before joining this company, Masako one of the women was working in a financial company. She was the first one to be laid off because she spoke her own mind on onset of the bubble economy (Kirino, 1997).  This is   a challenge such women face in contemporary Japanese. A woman who speaks and express what she feels deep inside heart always bears the brunt of bosses. The struggle of women however, continues as she secures a job in this industry. The work is not easy, as they have to risk their lives to go to work and to walk on industrial streets with poor lighting. Furthermore, these women have children which they take care of, but notwithstanding they have taken upon themselves to go to work at least to bring bread on the table.

On the other side, when Yayoi explains the struggles and how she tries to catch sleep during the day time when children are at day care, the response she gets from the police man is sarcastic. The police answers, “I understand that’s becoming quite a common arrangement’ (Kirino, 1997).  The Japanese woman is therefore, under pressure to work and to earn something to ensure that life runs.

 Financial Challenges

Financial challenges are yet other hurdle that Kirino exemplifies in this novel.  In contemporary Japan, every good thing has a price tag hence require money to access or to buy something that one desires.  Women in the novel led by Kuniko are in dire need of money. She is a woman who is obsessed with make-up, clothes and foreign cars. The level of obsession is high than the income at her disposal.  She has accumulated mountain of debts and has nowhere to get money to sustain her and she is forced to take back door loans at whooping 40 percent interests to survive (Kirino, 1997).  Kirino is therefore depicting a Japanese contemporary woman who aspires to live a good live and to drive classy cars, dress trending and latest fashion, but with little income at their disposal. This actually, leads to many of the women narrowing and later experiencing bad financial management (Kirino, 1997). This is one of the challenges that women must endeavour to address. Personal financial management remains important to ensure that women do not engage in unnecessary expenditure that can have a detrimental effect to their later life.

Family Challenges Faced by Women

Raising a good family remains important aspects in Japan.  A family is the smallest unit of a society and therefore a critical factor in the survival of generations to come and for the continuity of a society. Women play a major role in the management and success of family.

The four women Masako Katori, Kuniko Jonouchi, Yoshie Azuma, and Yayoi Yamamoto are used to illuminate the mysteries and the challenges that women in the Japanese society go through.  Women face social challenges especially when it comes to management of family. Family is the source of challenges that women face. This novel exposes the root and challenges that families go through, especially women trying to raise up children. Fathers abscond their responsibilities, like Kenji who does not mind about the family (Kirino, 1997). He flouts with hostess and enjoys time in casinos.  Society has certain expectations to the mothers and fathers. However, in the Japanese society marriage is respected and this leads to struggles to maintain it. Yayoi is a woman who works night shift to try and make ends meet but still considered as bad (Kirino, 1997). For instance Yayoi is one of the women that society perceives to be bad. This is in contrast to men such as Kenji who stays out late gambling, and even the police have the guts to say that boys will be boys (Kirino, 1997). The statement from police further qualifies and demonstrates the way society perceives men and women. Yayoi is expected to settle home and play the good little wife while her husband runs after women and squanders savings.

Mistreatment/Violence against Women

Women in the novel are also portrayed as the first recipient of violence acts from their male counterparts. Women are vulnerable just because of their femininity. The gender equation leaves women exposed to more harm compared to men. In one instance, character Satake, a male stab a woman to death while having sex with her in a gruesome flashback (Kirino, 1997).  The vulnerability of women is therefore higher. Secondly, women suffer or experience mistreatment from their husbands.  The quote illustrates the gory of this stabbing:

The woman had gasped beneath his heavy body. He rubbed against her, lubricated by the warm, sticky liquid, but as her body gradually grew cold, he felt as though they’d been glued together. She seemed to be see-sawing between agony and ecstasy, but finally Satake pressed his lips over hers to quiet the groans-of pain or pleasure-that were leaking from her mouth. He found the hole that he had made in her side and worked his finger deep into the opening. Blood was pumping from the wound, staining their sex a gruesome crimson. He wanted to get further inside, to melt into her. As he was about to come, he pulled his lips from her and she whispered in his ear: “I’m finished . . . finished (Kirino, 1997).

In contemporary Japanese culture, Kirino portrays the role of women as looking after children whereas; husbands can have time with friends and engage in all sorts of drinking and having good times with their friends. Women should always be at home ensuring that children are well kept. Kenji also the husband of Yayoi spends all his savings at a nightclub engaging in infatuations with hostesses (Kirino, 1997).  He also bet with the savings without caring about the welfare of his wife and two children.  Yayoi is mentally tortured and this is what leads to the bad decision to end husbands live and dump the body in a dustbin around the city.

Desperation of women situation is the sole reason for their anger and involvement in crime. The decision by Yayoi to end the life of her husband was because of her desperation. She had suffered enough frustration and this she meted to the husband. 


Kirino has attempted to exploit the dynamics of people living in the contemporary Japan. The book has gruesome stories touching on violent and crime. However, on a softer touch and human angle, Kirino has exploited challenges that women go through day to day as they try to make ends meet. It is for sure a daunting task for women in this era; where by the social fabric has broken. Women as well are faced with challenges such as mistreatment, low pay, high debts and psychological problems. Women have to endure these problems and always demonstrate resilient and courage.  The company that the four women used to work for paid them little money. Semi-skilled individuals could do the work, it was gruesome but the four women had to persevere and work hard because they had to also meet other responsibilities. Psychological problems also manifest in the book. Women are disturbed and challenged when they are undergoing stress because of the many issues that are going through their mind. This may end up leading them into committing or doing something sinister. The four women ended up killing the husband and cutting his body into smaller parts before disposing them into dustbins.  Financial challenge was yet another noticeable challenge that women in the book goes through. Desire to live a comfortable and classy live style pushes women to loan money that they end up repaying with high interest rates. Political institutions and the elite who were thought to present and propagate matter concerning women have also done little to fight and empower their fellow women. The Equal employment Act was passed in 1985, but it took considerable amount of time to fully implement the same. The time lag is so wide that it could have permitted for enactment of reforms to empower women. Yayoi lacked support from her husband. She has to work at night to fend for her two children; the father has relinquished her duties, and is involved in sex orgies with hostess and betting. Additionally, the husband does not make efforts to save and show concern for his family. The challenge here is for Yayoi to work hard to fend for her family. This is too much for one head.

Overall, Kirino has significantly provided lenses through which the history and way of life of Japanese in contemporary time perceived women. Women have faced challenges but many of them are slowly being addressed. There is hope that challenges that women face will be addressed and Japanese will leave to appreciate every member of the society regardless of their gender.



Dalton, E. (2015). Review – Women and Politics in Contemporary Japan. Retrieved from:            https://www.e-ir.info/2016/09/08/review-women-and-politics-in-contemporary-japan/

Gretchen, E., & Vilma, S.,  & Larissa, M.  (2011). Women and Family in Contemporary Japan      by Susan Holloway Transforming Japan: How Feminism and Diversity Are Making a            Difference by Kumiko Fujimura-Fanselow. Comparative Education Review. 55. 649-652.      10.1086/662729.

Kincaid, C. (2016). Gender Roles of Women in Modern Japan. Retrieved at:             https://www.japanpowered.com/japan-culture/gender-roles-women-modern-japan

Kirino, N. (1997). {trans. Stephen Snyder} “Out” (New York: Kodansha, 2003; New York:         Vintage, 2005).

Kumamoto-Healey, J. (2005), “Women in the Japanese Labour Market, 1947-2003: A

            Brief Survey”, in International Labour Review, vol. 144, no. 4, pp. 451-472

Mali, L. (2007). Women and work in contemporary Japan: deconstructing the “crisis” of the         gender order. 1-1000. Retrieved at:     https://ses.library.usyd.edu.au/bitstream/2123/2164/1/Lillian%20Mai.pdf

Osawa, M. (2004-05), “Japan’s Changing Economy and Women Workers”, in The

            Japanese Economy, Winter, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 96-108



Thesis: Most women face a myriad of challenges just because of their gender. Some of the challenges they face are hard labor, working for long hours, violence and mistreatment by their husbands and financial challenges. Women are also perceived as sex objects to satisfy means sexual desires.Thesis: Despite positive progress to elevate women, Japanese Contemporary society has not solved the challenges that women go through because of  the gender factor.







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