RES500/MOD 1 SLP-The Research Question, Literature Review and Research Hypothesis
The SLP for this course is designed to allow you to apply the research concepts and principles introduced throughout this course to a “real-world” health problem. As such, you will be asked to devise your own research question, to use the empirical literature to identify knowledge gaps in the field with regard to that research question, formulate a corresponding research hypothesis, propose an appropriate study design for testing that research hypothesis, and devise a sampling and recruitment plan to strengthen the generalizability of your study’s findings. In Module 4, you will upload a final paper consisting of all of these elements.
After reading the background materials for this module, select one of the following research topics and derive a corresponding research question and hypothesis.
Write a 2- to 3-page paper, double space in which you identify your research question and hypothesis.
In devising your research question, apply the “Attributes of a ‘Good’ Research Question.” Your paper should clearly delineate the extent to which each of the following criteria has been satisfied:
- Consisting of two core concepts (at minimum)
A hypothesis should:
- Be stated clearly and concisely
- Express the relationship between two or more variables
- Be testable
- Be based upon theory and/or clinical experience
- Obesity and Diabetes Risk
- Physical Activity and Stroke Risk
- Health Insurance Status and Health Care Utilization
- Education and Mortality Risk
- Drug Addiction and Criminal Behavior
- Cancer Therapy  and Tumor Growth
VERY IMPORTANT INFORMATION PLEASE WRITE ACCORDING TO THIS INSTRUCTIONS, THIS PAPER IS BEING REDONE
Unfortunately, each Paper affect the order and that info was provided. Therefore, original Order #568625 which I was asked to change for the writer to do a paper on the ACA Obamacare and I agree, this changes Order #568747 and 568746. I’ve been trying to get this fixed since the 17th or 18th of September. Is there anyone that can correct this problem? Can the three of my orders be given to the same writer to Make changes or corrections? The longer we go around in circle the worst my grade becomes.
Correlation between Drug Addiction and Criminal Behavior among Juvenile Delinquents
What is the correlation between drug addiction and criminal behavior among juvenile delinquents?
Juvenile delinquency is described as an illegal behavior committed by individuals below the required statutory age of an adult. This group of people, often known as juveniles, ranges within age groups 10-18 years. Shiloh (2012) notes that when such individuals violate laws, their actions are not considered as crimes but rather, as delinquent acts. They are assumed to make uninformed decisions, typically as a result of peer pressure and in most cases, oblivious of the consequences of their actions. Over the years, the topic of juvenile delinquency and factors that lead to criminal behavior among adolescents has elicited mixed reactions. There are researchers who associate delinquent acts with peer pressure, while other argue that it is caused by multiple other factors. Because of these inconsistencies in previous research and literature by some authors, this research focuses on evaluating the correlation between drug addiction and criminal behavior among juvenile delinquents.
According to a research conducted by Monahan et al (2014), there is substantial and consistent evidence showing the existence of a relationship between criminal behaviors and substance abuse among youths. Youths dependent on drugs showed a heightened rate of involvement in crime compared to their non-dependent counterparts. These findings have affirmed the intimate relationship between criminal behaviors and drugs. However, researchers have failed to zero in and exclusively conduct research on juveniles, probably because their age limits them from using drugs. Because of this, past research have focused on substance use and criminal activities among adolescents. Most of the previous research have centered on the use of alcohol and marijuana while assuming other hard drugs that have now infiltrated the juvenile age groupings.
According to research conducted by Sharma et al (2016), it was shown that delinquency increased with an increase in the rate of access and use of drugs. This is attributed to the fact that substance abuse increases chances of recidivism, while also making them prone to peer pressure. Such a combination of factors motivate them into engaging in anti-social behavior. This case is ascertained by Hunter et al (2014) who conducted a research questioning the possibility of first time users of drugs, to commit crimes in the future. It was established that a juvenile at the onset of substance use is likely to register low levels of crime compared to those that are severely dependent on drugs. In answering the question on why such a situation is possible, Sharma et al (2016) explain that when juveniles begin to use abuse drugs, they end up becoming dependent and this makes it hard for them to withdraw. In the long run, they find it hard to sustain the high costs of these drugs as their urge gradually escalates in favor of hard drugs. This situation could lead a juvenile into committing petty offences such as stealing in order to sustain their drug dependence.
Shiloh (2012) adds to this research by noting that youths involved in drug use exhibit multiple clinical and psychosocial challenges. Most of the children involved in drug use come from families that are economically disadvantaged. The conditions in their families predispose them to co-occurring psychiatric and psychosocial disorders. At times, when these factors are combined with strong peer pressure, it becomes hard for a youth to venture into the vice of drug abuse. This points at the complex nature of relationship between drug use, mental health, socio-economic factors and other enabling conditions that contribute towards criminality among youths and juveniles.
Hunter et al (2014) note that the foundation for understanding the connection between drug abuse and criminality was documented in a seminal paper by Goldstein, published in 1985. According to the paper, there is a connection between criminal activities and crimes. His research showed that in Philadelphia, 31% of crimes involving homicides were committed by individuals under the age of 30 years and were mostly a result of dependence on drugs. This research, which was supported by newspaper headlining cases of homicide and their relationship to drug use among the identified age group, affirmed that there was a proximal correlation between drug use and criminal activities.
In explaining this condition, the Goldstein Tripartite Model was formulated. The model is composed of three arms; pharmacological aspects of intoxication, economic compulsive arm and systemic arm (Bennett & Holloway 2009). Intoxication was a result of alcoholism, barbiturates and stimulants. The second arm on economic compulsive explains the causal relationship between drug use and crimes such as prostitution. Bean (2014) adds that youths could retort to prostitution in order to finance their dependence on drugs. There are situations where addiction to drugs could compel a person into violent crimes. The third arm is systemic crimes which are a result of involvement in illicit drug activities. These crimes are a result of internal conflicts among group members. These crimes include trafficking of drugs which is a serious crime that also affects juveniles. In addition to this model, there is also the psychopharmacological model which explains the sequence of events after using a given drug into committing a criminal activity (Bennett & Holloway 2009). The sequence begins with drug use, leading to intoxication of the user. The person reacts by engaging in a criminal activity. As much as these models have perfectly been applicable to youths and adults, it is unproven among juveniles. Thus, the focus of this research will be establishing the correlation between drug addiction and criminal behavior among the juvenile groups. The research will be guided by the following hypothesis.
Research Hypothesis (One-tailed)
Ho: Juveniles addicted to drugs are more likely to exhibit criminal behavior
Ha: Juveniles addicted to drugs are less likely to exhibit criminal behavior
Note that, Ho refers to a null hypothesis while Ha denotes an alternative hypothesis.
Bean, P. (2014). Drugs and crime. New York: Routledge.
Bennett, T. & Holloway, K. (2009). Causal connection between drug misuse and crime. British Journal of Criminology 49:513–531.
Hunter, S. B., Miles, J. N., Pedersen, E. R., Ewing, B. A., & D’Amico, E. J. (2014). Temporal associations between substance use and delinquency among youth with a first time offense. Addictive behaviors, 39(6), 1081-1086.
Monahan, K. C., Rhew, I. C., Hawkins, J. D. & Brown, E. C. (2014). Adolescent pathways to co‐occurring problem behavior: The effects of peer delinquency and peer substance use. Journal of research on adolescence, 24(4), 630-645.
Sharma, S., Sharma, G., & Barkataki, B. (2016). Substance use and criminality among juveniles-under-enquiry in New Delhi. Indian journal of psychiatry, 58(2), 178.
Shiloh, C. (2012). The Relationship between Substance Abuse and Teen Crime. Retrieved from: http://reclaimingfutures.org/blog/2012/10/15/substance-abuse-among-teen-offenders/
Urban Life Vs Rural life
An environment where one lives is a weighty determinant of his/her personality, exposure and also governs one’s characteristics. It is this reason that the current parents weigh on place to bring up their children. While rural areas have got fresh hair, no traffic jam, and lacks congestion, urban areas have got verities of activities which include access to several business opportunities, exposure, and diverse cultural orientation which is very imperative for people to coexist with others. It is, therefore, important to note that living in the city is one of the fundamental way of progressing since there are several developmental opportunities; therefore, if I am given an opportunity to live anywhere I would live in urban.
The urban environment has got good facilities that are imperative for proper development. Firstly, the medical services are of standard which are very useful in treating preventable diseases which could otherwise result into deaths in rural areas. On the same note, there are good schools which are of significant for school development. Culturally, the urban centers have different individuals from dissimilar backgrounds, this is important for cultural diversity where one gets to learn how to go along with different people.
Finally, money circulation in the urban centers is greater than rural areas. Therefore, it is easier to have a business and succeed in it. This can also be assisted by the number of people who are dwelling in urban areas, who are sole determinants of the success of a business. As such, there are higher chances of making money in urban areas hence reducing the rate of poverty. Following the discussion herein, it can be noted that urban life is far better than rural life hence given the opportunity to choose, I will settle on urban life.