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  1. Crime Scene Reconstruction   


    Describe two major limitations of crime-scene reconstruction. At the end of your report answer add a section that estimates the distance from the shooter-to-target based on the descriptions of


Subject Law and governance Pages 3 Style APA


Crime Scene Reconstruction

                Crime-scene reconstruction refers to the process of eliminating or determining the actions and events which took place at a crime scene through an analytical process of the crime scene pattern, position and location of the physical evidence. The reconstruction process is not only inclusive of the scientific scene analysis process but also the interpretation of the lab results, scene pattern evidence, and the systematic investigation of the information associated with the logical formation theory and information (Eros, Andrea, Boccardo, Ciulio Tonolo & Lingua, 2008). This essay provides an examination of two primary limitations associated with the crime-scene reconstruction. Additionally, it also provides an outline of the estimates of the distance between the target and the shooter.


                The process of crime-scene reconstruction is associated with several limitations. For instance, the investigators can only rely on what is left to provide a theory of what could have occurred at the time the crime transpired. The information available to establish the theories are, in most cases, much less than required to establish a full timeline of the actual factors which transpired during the crime. The second major limitation to be considered is that the crime-scene reconstruction process is a highly costly process. The cost associated with the process is seen mainly as a result of the time consumed completed the requisite procedures of the reconstruction process. Notably, Mozayani and Noziglia (2011) outline that the reconstruction process relies on the information collected from many tests and resources which require a lot of time to be accomplished. This factor provides an indication that the reconstruction team may not receive all the viable information associated with the crime scene for days, weeks, months, or even years after the crime occurred. In support of this, Mozayani and Noziglia (2011) state that the reconstruction process is founded on a series of information derived from autopsies, tests, interrogations, and different other sources which can be accessed over an extensive period of time after the incident takes place.

Distance Estimates

                The shooting distance estimated are carried out with an aim of providing an approximate firearm muzzle-to-target range and the time the gun was discharged. Theoretically, the closer a firearm is discharged to an object, the smaller the gunpowder pattern will be seen. Similarly, the more distant the firearm is discharged to an object, the larger the gunpowder pattern will be emitted. The drop off point of many firearms’ gunpowder patterns will be estimated to approximately 36 to 48 inches from the target (Crime Scene Investigator Network, 2015).

                In the case where gunpowder particles is widely spread with no soot evident around the entrance hole, then the distance between the shooter to the target can be estimated to be at approximately 48 inches from the target, suggesting that the firearm was shot at a far distance.

When a dark ring is noted around the bullet hole with no soot evident or gun powder seen, the estimated distance will be approximately 30 inches (Crime Scene Investigator Network, 2015). When halo soot is noted around the bullet hole alongside scattered specks of powder grain, the estimated distance will be approximately 13 inches (Crime Scene Investigator Network, 2015). When scotch marks are seen around the bullet holes and melted fibers seen surrounding the holes, then it can be assumed that the distance between the target and the shooter was small such as less than 10 inches.


Crime Scene Investigator Network, (2015). How Far Will Shooting Distance Determination Take Your Case?. Retrieved from https://www.crime-scene-investigator.net/how-far-will-shooting-distance-determination-take-your-case.html

Eros, A., Andrea, A., Boccardo, P., Ciulio Tonolo, F. & Lingua, A. (2008). Crime Scene Reconstruction Using a Fully Geomatic Approach. Sensors. 8. doi.10.3390/s8106280.

Mozayani, A. & Noziglia, C. (2011). The Forensic Laboratory Handbook Procedures and Practice. 10.1007/978-1-60761-872-0.





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