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1. ‘Direct costs are always variable relative to the level of output, indirect costs are always fixed.’Comment on this statement, providing examples to illustrate your points. [10 Marks]
2. Research evidence shows that the direct-labour-hour basis of overhead absorption by cost units (products) is the most popular basis used in practice. Is it a logical basis? Explain your answer. [10 Marks]
You have been asked to suggest a method of deducing the full cost of various production orders of Patel Ltd. This method will be used as a basis for setting prices. The production orders vary greatly in size and nature from one to the next.
The following information has been taken from the budget for the forthcoming financial year:

Direct labour hours 100,000 hours
Machine hours 90,000 hours

Manufacturing costs:
Power £40,000
Direct materials £200,000
Machine maintenance and repairs £38,000
Factory heat and light £4,000
Lubricants and cleaning materials £6,000
Direct labour £600,000
factory buildings £130,000
machinery £402,000
Indirect labour £100,000
Total £1,520,000

The business is not departmentalised for accounting purposes.
All direct labour is paid the same hourly rate.

(a) Calculate the two following overhead rates for the year; the Direct labour hour (DLH) rate of overhead recovery and Machine hour (MH) rate of overhead recovery [9 Marks]
(b) Prepare full costings for Order No 101 using each of the rates calculated in (a) (that is, two separate costings). [14 Marks]
The cost sheet for Order No 101 shows the following:
Raw materials £5,000
Direct labour hours 4,000 hours
Machine hours 1,900 hours.
(c) State briefly which of the two bases of overheads you prefer and why.How might you improve on the two possible costs that you derived in (b) by taking a slightly different approach? [7 Marks]



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