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Course Learning Outcomes for Unit II Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:

1. Detail the physical properties of the three states of matter. 1.1 Explain why radiative, conductive, and convective heat transfer in fires is especially important. 1.2 Describe the difference between thermally thin and thermally thick materials related to heat

conduction and radiation. 1.3 Explain how the methods of heat transfer create issues in firefighting with the development and

movement of fire.

Course/Unit Learning Outcomes

Learning Activity


Unit Lesson Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Unit II Essay


Unit Lesson Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Unit II Essay


Unit Lesson Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Unit II Essay

Required Unit Resources Chapter 4: Flow of Fluids Chapter 5: Heat Transfer

Unit Lesson Review In the previous unit, we covered the concepts associated with the dynamics of fire and the outcome of combustible reactions being determined by thermodynamics. In addition, we understood the lack of preparedness was cited for firefighter injuries and fatalities. Several authors suggested it was the result of the attitudes and behavior of firefighters over simplifying fire behavior and combustion (Gann & Friedman, 2015). In the lesson, we covered the main constituents in fire growth, learning the rate at which fire will spread over adjacent combustible materials is affected by mass, energy, heat, and enthalpy. We learned an enthalpy flow is from one point to another because of a temperature difference. We understood that fire starts at the boundary where vaporization of a liquid turns into a volatile gas mixing with air (oxygen) reaching a continuous state resulting in combustion (Figure 1). The sauce pan will absorb some energy by the layer of


Three States of Matter

FIR 2303, Fire Behavior and Combustion 2



volatiles above the surface of the cooking oil. Then convective and conductive heat exchange occurs above including the volatile gas. We understood that combustion, as a negative enthalpy reaction, is an exothermic chemical reaction between a fuel and an oxidizer resulting in the generation of substantive heat and light (Gann & Friedman, 2015). We saw an explanation of enthalpy reaction where cooking oil, as a liquid, became vaporized and, as it burned, suspended solids in smoke resulting in flammable, volatile mass of solids and aerosols (Figure 2 and Figure 3).

Combustion, according to these authors, always involves oxidation at the molecular level. In this unit, we will cover the three states of matter. Three States of Matter Matter is found in three states: solid, liquid, and gas (Gann & Friedman, 2015). As firefighters, when we enter a structure fire, we see matter in the form of physical material all around us. Some of the physical material undergoes a chemical reaction producing intense heat and light through a process of enthalpy. If there are three states of matter, is fire a solid, a liquid, or a gas? Is there a physical and chemical change with matter? What are the phase changes related to fire?

Fire has a significant effect on matter or structure. As reviewed in Unit I’s Points to Ponder–Building on the Scenario, the structure fire resulted from a sauce pan with cooking oil (liquid matter) left unattended on the stove. The fire grew to one or two rooms (solid matter) being involved. One reason the fire grew rapidly is the characteristic of the matter in the compartment (rooms) enclosed the flames. We saw the heat generation and the nature of combustion products in Figure 2 as the fire transitioned during the growth of the fire to the fully developed phase in the one or two rooms of the apartment. The fire was spreading with turbulent smoke. How was the fire transmitted from the different states of matter? As firefighters, do we really care about the conductivity of materials regarding heat or even if heat remains at a uniform temperature as it is transmitted across the different materials (matter) and its thickness? When we advance handlines down the hallway, do we see the conductivity of solid materials and how fast the heat flows through it using radiant exposure equations (Figure 4)? Is it even important to a firefighter? Several years ago, experienced fire tacticians focused on the temperatures involved in structure fires due to the assigned rating of the personal protective equipment and not on the transfer of heat from one matter to another (International Fire Service Training Association [IFSTA], 2013). They based this on the color, volume, velocity, and density of smoke as an indicator of the estimated temperature. After all, are we only concerned with reading smoke?

Figure 1

Figure 3 Figure 2

Sample Answer

Compelling correspondence is essential to the achievement all things considered but since of the changing idea of the present working environments, successful correspondence turns out to be more troublesome, and because of the numerous impediments that will permit beneficiaries to acknowledge the plan of the sender It is restricted. Misguided judgments.In spite of the fact that correspondence inside the association is rarely completely open, numerous straightforward arrangements can be executed to advance the effect of these hindrances.

Concerning specific contextual analysis, two significant correspondence standards, correspondence channel determination and commotion are self-evident. This course presents the standards of correspondence, the act of general correspondence, and different speculations to all the more likely comprehend the correspondence exchanges experienced in regular daily existence. The standards and practices that you learn in this course give the premise to additionally learning and correspondence.

This course starts with an outline of the correspondence cycle, the method of reasoning and hypothesis. In resulting modules of the course, we will look at explicit use of relational connections in close to home and expert life. These incorporate relational correspondence, bunch correspondence and dynamic, authoritative correspondence in the work environment or relational correspondence. Rule of Business Communication In request to make correspondence viable, it is important to follow a few rules and standards. Seven of them are fundamental and applicable, and these are clear, finished, brief, obliging, right, thought to be, concrete. These standards are frequently called 7C for business correspondence. The subtleties of these correspondence standards are examined underneath: Politeness Principle: When conveying, we should build up a cordial relationship with every individual who sends data to us.

To be inviting and polite is indistinguishable, and politeness requires an insightful and amicable activity against others. Axioms are notable that gracious “pay of graciousness is the main thing to win everything”. Correspondence staff ought to consistently remember this. The accompanying standards may assist with improving courtesy:Preliminary considering correspondence with family All glad families have the mystery of progress. This achievement originates from a strong establishment of closeness and closeness. Indeed, through private correspondence these cozy family connections become all the more intently. Correspondence is the foundation of different affiliations, building solid partners of obedient devotion, improving family way of life, and assisting with accomplishing satisfaction (Gosche, p. 1). In any case, so as to keep up an amicable relationship, a few families experienced tumultuous encounters. Correspondence in the family is an intricate and alluring marvel. Correspondence between families isn’t restricted to single messages between families or verbal correspondence.

It is a unique cycle that oversees force, closeness and limits, cohesiveness and flexibility of route frameworks, and makes pictures, topics, stories, ceremonies, rules, jobs, making implications, making a feeling of family life An intelligent cycle that makes a model. This model has passed ages. Notwithstanding the view as a family and family automatic framework, one of the greatest exploration establishments in between family correspondence centers around a family correspondence model. Family correspondence model (FCP) hypothesis clarifies why families impart in their own specific manner dependent on one another ‘s psychological direction. Early FCP research established in media research is keen on how families handle broad communications data. Family correspondence was perceived as an exceptional scholastic exploration field by the National Communications Association in 1989. Family correspondence researchers were at first impacted by family research, social brain science, and relational hypothesis, before long built up the hypothesis and began research in a family framework zeroed in on a significant job. Until 2001, the primary issue of the Family Communication Research Journal, Family Communication Magazine, was given. Family correspondence is more than the field of correspondence analysts in the family. Examination on family correspondence is normally done by individuals in brain science, humanism, and family research, to give some examples models. However, as the popular family correspondence researcher Leslie Baxter stated, it is the focal point of this intelligent semantic creation measure making the grant of family correspondence special. In the field of in-home correspondence, correspondence is normally not founded on autonomous messages from one sender to one beneficiary, yet dependent on the dynamic interdependency of data shared among families It is conceptualized. The focal point of this methodology is on the shared trait of semantic development inside family frameworks. As such, producing doesn’t happen in vacuum, however it happens in a wide scope of ages and social exchange.

Standards are rules end up being followed when performing work to agree to a given objective. Hierarchical achievement relies significantly upon compelling correspondence. So as to successfully impart, it is important to follow a few standards and rules. Coming up next are rules to guarantee powerful correspondence: clearness: lucidity of data is a significant guideline of correspondence. For beneficiaries to know the message plainly, the messages ought to be sorted out in a basic language. To guarantee that beneficiaries can without much of a stretch comprehend the importance of the message, the sender needs to impart unmistakably and unhesitatingly so the beneficiary can plainly and unquestionably comprehend the data.>

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