Fisher Carleton University Summer 2015 CLCV-HIST 2904: The Republic
Midterm Exam Questions: Due June 2, 2015 Value: 40%
Answer Q1 and then ONE of Qs 2 or 3 (TWO questions total). Be sure to support and justify your responses with examples from class or from the text. Marks will be given for balanced, clear, and concise answers which address the question and offer thoughtful and well- supported arguments. Bad grammar and/or poor spelling will be penalised.
You are free to use any source you wish, but you are expected to make use of your notes from class to assist you in answering your questions. Please indicate clearly the source of any specific information or ideas which are not your own, using in-text parenthetical notation, e.g. ‘the Romans used flaming pigs (Class notes, date)’ or ‘according to Campbell, the chief priesthood was formalised early on (Campbell, p. xyz)’. You do not need to append a bibliography unless you go beyond these two sources. In the question on Polybius, you can simply cite him as ‘according to Polybius…’ or just ‘(Polybius, Bk. 6)’ at the end of the sentence. No cover sheet is required.
Submit your assignment electronically as a PDF or Word document via CULearn by 2355 EST on June 2, 2015. Do not submit a paper copy.
You may write as much or as little as you like, but the normal maximum for these questions is about a 1-2 page (single-spaced), 12-point font size answer, for each question (so, 3-6pp total). Finally, no late assignments without a valid reason. No exceptions.
Note on plagiarism. I do not want to see any plagiarised answers here. Even the merest stench of the foul odour of plagiarism will see your answers submitted, without exception, to the Associate Dean of FASS.
Feedback policy. We do not return marked up copies of exams in this course, but instead provide feedback and discussion of exams on request, for the sake of efficiency. If you wish to talk about your exam after the marks are posted, just let me know.
- Think broadly, like Polybius, about Hannibal’s defeat. Assess the validity of understanding the campaigns of Hannibal in the Second Punic War from the perspective of the war between the Romans and Pyrrhus. Do you agree with the position presented to you in class, or are there other possibilities that might explain why Hannibal lost the war? Organise your answer around three main points of your choice.
Everyone should answer question 1.
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- Fisher Carleton University Summer 2015
Answer either question 2 or 3.
- Assess three ways in which Roman expansion throughout Italy and/or the Mediterranean affected the young Republic down to the end of the Second Punic War. Which of the three is the most important, in your opinion, for your understanding of Roman history so far in this course? Be sure to justify your choices with reference to material covered in class and/or drawn from your readings.
- Polybius, Histories, Book 6:
‘THE THREE kinds of government, monarchy, aristocracy and democracy, were all found united in the commonwealth of Rome. And so even was the balance between them all, and so regular the administration that resulted from their union, that it was no easy thing to determine with assurance, whether the entire state was to be estimated an aristocracy, a democracy, or a monarchy.’
What parts of the Roman constitution corresponded to Polybius’ ‘monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy’? Why did Polybius regard the Roman constitution as an ideal approach to government? From class discussion, from your own readings, and your own reflection on Polybius’ text, do you see problems, reading between the lines of Polybius’ rosy outlook? (Think about the US here, perhaps—see the slides on CU Learn). Be sure to see the short section of Polybius Book 6 on CULearn, and to distinguish between the opinions of Polybius and your own opinions in your answer.
Bonus question (1%): the ‘mother of all cities’ is a reference to which urban centre mentioned in class on May 22?
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History of Roman
Rome an empire that gave birth to the current civilization is said to have collapsed under its weight, according to legends the empire was started by Remus and Romulus, who were twins. The legends narrate that Romulus betrayed is brother and formed the great ancient empire that ever existed. From the legends, betrayal was the foundation that formed the empire, from the history of the empire, has a list of betrayals scenarios that never end (Cornell, 2012). After its formation, Rome grew from a village to a great city that spread civilization across Mediterranean and dominated the region for a period. Currently, it is one among the known great cities that ever existed in the history of the world (Hoyos, 1998). The expansion of the kingdom leads to various famous wars in the history of the world like the Punic wars.
Hannibal and the Punic Wars
Rome expansion in the Mediterranean caused a series of war in Europe; among the wars are the famous Punic wars between the expanding Rome and the already established Carthage. Punic wars were the greatest war that ever occurred during that time (Cornell, 2012). Hannibal is a famous figure in the history of these wars, his campaigns shocked the empire. Hannibal campaign to defeat Rome lead to some worse atrocities in the history of the Roman Empire, one of such is that Hannibal troops were taught to eat human flesh. Hannibal thought that teaching members of his army to eat human flesh will enable him to survive the cruelty of the weather, the barbarians and the Romans (Cornell, 2012). He believed that to defeat cruelty one had to be more cruelty, thus the first strategy that Hannibal used was the cruelty of the highest order. The use of such strategy was not in order because it is sheer hard to defeat cruelty with cruelty.
Another reason for Hannibal campaign was to instill peace in the Mediterranean region; the Carthaginians believed that Rome was the cause of continuous wars. Rome as a kingdom had the ambition to gain control of the whole Mediterranean region, Carthage as the kingdom was not ready for the Roman domination (Cornell, 2012).The Carthaginians had to protect their kingdom from Rome’s power; this gave Hannibal power to amass troops and attack Rome.
Hannibal also considers Roman expansion as evil hence the reason to attack them and defeat them before spreading their wrong doings in the territory. Hannibal, therefore, accuses Rome of his campaign across Italy defeating Roman armies for 15 years (Hoyos, 1998). Though, Hannibal had the highlighted reasons to enable him amass army that could defeat Rome, his speech after he was defeated suggests otherwise. Hannibal main reason to attach Rome was to gain power and control of the major shipping centers and routes. Hannibal lost the war due to power strategy he employed his strategies to fail.
Rome Expansion and its Influence
Rome expanded both in terms military and size, with time the empire covered the whole of the current Italy. Continuous expansion of Rome leads to a series of war termed as the Punic wars (Moser, 2014). The expansion of the kingdom affected the conquered area in various ways. Some of the ways it affected the region included the introduction of Roman culture and religion to conquered areas, wars, and a new way of governance (Heitland, 2014).
Rome Empire fought an endless war to establish it authority and power over its subjects. Some of the famous war that Rome fought to gain control of the European region includes Battle of Lake Regillus. That was the war that enabled Rome to control the whole of Latin countries (Moser, 2014). Moreover, the war opened other frontiers of war that Rome fought over and over again to survive its dominion. The Punic wars are among greatest wars that Rome ever fought in Roman kingdom History. Punic wars were between Rome and Carthage; Carthaginians were afraid of Rome expansion to their trading regions and thus fought to protect their dominance. Through wars in the region, Rome spread it fighting skills, techniques and weapons across Europe (Heitland, 2014). Spreading it military skills enabled the barbarians and other primitive tribes to attack Rome and kill its habitats. Attack from the barbarian’s tribes greatly affected the growth of the young Republic.
Expansion of Rome across European region lead to the Romans interacting with various cultures across Europe that shaped the young republic. Rome acquired new ways of doing things in terms of technology, business, and religions; Christianity is an example of culture change due to the expansion of Roman Empire (Moser, 2014). Christian originated from the Judean region and later became the official religion of the Roman people. Roman structures and architecture were also influenced by the architectural skills they acquired from the people they conquered like the Greeks.
The Roman way of administration was unique and has greatly shaped the way most government use to administer their regions. Democracy, aristocracy, and monarchy were all practiced in the ancient Rome. The Romans managed to practice all this forms of government because they taught them from the people they conquered for instance democracy was adopted from the Greeks (Heitland, 2014). The Roman education was also inherited from most of the kingdoms that they defeated and conquered. The Romans also adopted the constitution way of governance from the kingdoms it conquered and used it to establish its power (Moser, 2014).
The way of governance inherited from the Greeks was the most important effect that the growing republic ever acquired. The Roman way of administration enables them to stay stable amidst various wars that were surrounding them (Heitland, 2014). The people of the Roman Empire also felt satisfied with the governance since everybody had an opportunity to seek leadership and participate in the process. The Constitution was an important document that helped the young republic to overcome lots of leadership challenges. The constitution gave every Roman citizen their rights and gave each leader their role to ensure that the Republic is duly served. The constitution and way of governance ensured that public funds and resources were utilized effectively for the benefit of the republic and not individuals.
Roman administration weights more than other factors that Rome gained due to its expansion. The growing was able to manage its resources and manpower effectively due to its way of governance and the constitution. Roman constitution and governance made it the greatest ancient pagan empire in the history of kingdoms.
Cornell, T. (2012). The beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c. 1000–264 BC). Routledge.
Heitland, W. E. (2014). The Roman Republic (Vol. 3). Cambridge University Press.
Hoyos, B. D. (1998). Unplanned Wars: The Origins of the First and Second Punic Wars (Vol. 50). Walter de Gruyter.
Moser, H. S. (2014). Silencing the Revelry: An Examination of the Moral Panic in 186 BCE and the Political Implications Accompanying the Persecution of the Bacchic Cult in the Roman Republic (Doctoral dissertation, Kent State University).
Walbank, F. W. (1957). A historical commentary on Polybius (Vol. 1). Oxford: Clarendon Press.