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  1. – Job training programs for those leaving incarceration    




    write a research paper on your assessment of the role of human services professionals within a particular area of practice (e.g., evidence-based practices, drug treatment practices, use of technologies, medical models). The practice you select should be related to your area of interest, relevant in today’s human services field, and focused toward a specific population.
    To complete the project, address the following:
    (This topic will be the topic for this essay: Job training programs for those leaving incarceration.)
    Identify a particular program or area of practice that you would like to explore such as one of the following: job training programs for those leaving incarceration, nutrition programs for pregnant teens, special in-school tutoring programs for at-risk youth, and programs designed to help empower communities (reducing crime in communities, limiting the establishment of bars in communities, increasing urban gardening to provide food, etc.). Note: These are just examples and are not intended to limit your options.
    Identify and analyze three articles from current literature that inform the program or practice area you selected through theory or issue-specific research.




Subject Essay Writing Pages 9 Style APA


Job training programs for those leaving incarceration   

Finding a job after being released from prison is one of the significant re-incorporation challenges ex-prisoners face and is one that can have substantial impact on their probabilities of being crime-free. Prior research shows that getting and keeping reasonable employment after being released from prison can lessen the likelihood of recidivism following release from jail, exclusively for older criminals (Cole, Smith, & DeJong, 2014). Criminals released from prison, either under conditional release, control, or after the conclusion of their prison term, experience grave problems in society. Several of them never prospered in a healthy community before imprisonment, so they are in more requisite than ordinary Americans for training, job preparation, and a change of direction to values and appropriate conduct. Furthermore, many criminals will be going back to the community setting in which their troubles with substance abuse and alcohol might be renewed. These new characters will search for employment in an economy that makes getting jobs challenging, even for the people who do not have criminal records. The following essay discusses the history of job training programs for those leaving incarceration, the current status of the program, and how it is evolving in America. The paper further explains some of the policies that govern the program and how the program could move forward to change people and the community positively.  

The History of the Program

With a prion record, it is always a burden for an individual to find work, especially when they have no skills in the profession, no experience, and no money. In the mid-sixties, investigational study programs demonstrated a strong indication that the types of provision being protracted to the poor presented great potential in offender reintegration. With this in action, employability could increase, and recidivism decrease with rigorous counseling, corrective education, professional motivation, skill teaching and better support services. Trainers and the trained could acquire practical approaches to deal with job difficulties of ex-offenders. Consequently, Congress in 1966 passed Section 251 of the Manpower Development and Training Act (MDTA), demanding the development of investigational job preparation plans for the prisoner (Working Conference on Apprenticeship Research and Development, & United States, 1971). Beginning in mid-1967, developments in 39 states established grants adding to $9 million to develop 7,200 criminals in the pilot program. One was meant for in prisoners of a Federal establishment; three were in the county prisons, the rest were established in the national reformatories (Working Conference on Apprenticeship Research and Development, & United States, 1971). The first one was established in a similar year at Cook County Jail, Chicago. The designed and determined actions of Programmed Activities for Correctional Education (PACE) organization were significant in this setting. The Cook County Jail was constructed to suit understandings of improvements as imprisonment rather than recuperation. The platform, launched along lines suggested by the government occupation service, focusses on literacy studies and occupation sampling of woodwork, automobile repair, welding, and numerous other skills to assist learners in resolving natural skills and welfares (Working Conference on Apprenticeship Research and Development, & United States, 1971). Only sentenced prisoners could become learners, but PACE is open in the evening to un-sentenced offenders who are trained by volunteers. 

The Current Status of the Program and its Evolution in America

In recent decades, numerous programs have been lead to educate prisoners and ex-offenders on the abilities they require to reenter the public. Some plans are directed in prisons, and others include control and coaching in society. A significant problem that the criminal justice system is experiencing is to formulate and assess operational programs to assist parolees and ex-offenders change their lives. As the employment market tightens up in the growing economy, organizations will require employees. Iindividuals leaving incarceration into the public want jobs. Keeping latent companies and personnel separately is fear, unknowledgeable, and approximately 20,000 laws and principles through the nation that limit employment of ex-offenders. Crime has been declining in the past decades, but nearly 70 million grownups in this nation have immoral records; and about more than 10 million individuals go back to the society from imprisonment every year (Council of State Governments Justice, 2017). For this group of people, more occupations equate to lower recidivism, which leads to better lives. However, new beginnings are cut by ethnic bias, skill insufficiencies, and numerous governing obstacles. Amongst the most corporate: state guidelines that repudiate professional authorizations to individuals with criminal pasts. Contrasting other plans like counseling, jail work curricula can be justified for clarifications other than convalescence of the distinct criminal (Gran & Henry, 2007). 

From the perspective of the legislator in the criminal justice structure, these programs have assisted in managing the people by inhabiting the period of the convicts, helped in the process of the jail, generate revenue, and offer a method for convicts to repay their duty to the community. Therefore, almost every jail has some work plan for some of the prisoners in jail. Even if the connection amid crime and occupation is multifaceted, most authorities appear to approve on some issues. 

Firstly, a significant fraction of former convicts have low stages of learning and work know-how, health complications, and other individualities that brand them hard to hire, mainly in a work market that provides fewer well-paying chances for people who have no post-secondary education (Reid Mandell & Schram, 2020). For instance, about 40 percent of prisoners in public and federal jails have no high school diploma, 31 percent of state prisoners are impaired physically or have a mental condition, and approximately 57 percent record that they were using drugs before the arrest. Secondly, the rise in imprisonment over the last two decades has excessively impacted African-Americans. One research discovered that African-American men born in the year 1965 and 1969, about 30 percent of the ones without a college certificate and a surprising 60 percent of high school failures had been imprisoned by 1999. Numerous current studies have recognized the job market struggles of black men even throughout the 1990s boom. They also face insistent discrimination in the labor market. Third, although it is challenging to separate the influence of confinement on job market results, many researchers have discovered that earnings, and perhaps occupation as well, are worse for personalities who have been imprisoned for a long time than for comparable persons who have not (Gran & Henry, 2007). This is not astonishing, because the convicted criminals are lawfully banished from some occupations (as well as numerous in fast-developing sectors) and since workers are uneager to employ them.

Policies that Govern the Program

The Federal Interagency Reentry Council holds policy programs, determined to dismiss myths concerning reentry, reinforcing their rules, and cooperating with an increasing group of associates to improve the work. The policy covers a broad range of matters that might affect positive reentry and organize efforts amongst interventions at diverse stages of government. The council offers substantial initial assistance with regards to housing, occupation, and other issues that influence their capability to defend themselves and live well in a free society.


Restorative Justice

Restorative justice is a method of intermediation that is intended to reunite the pressure between offenders, sufferers, and the public and repair the damage that is done. This approach is utterly contradictory to punitive justice, which centers on just punishments for the offender. It purposes to restore the public and the victim and sets importance on the resolution (Reid Mandell & Schram, 2020). The offenders are involved in this procedure and their desires are met in the situation. Therefore, the offender must admit their deeds first and operate to reestablish the loss to the victim that is occasionally the public itself. The offenders are offered new practices and essential life skills, assisting them to be positively useful. They get mediation, such as financial support or psychological. The public plays a role here by volunteering to be mediators, assist in developing community services for the offenders, help out victims, and help teenage criminals in finishing their obligations such as high school or college. 

Future Implications

More rigorous education programs should mainly be geared towards minimizing the rate of recidivism. The education program has reduced recidivism and created opportunities for those leaving incarceration by approximately 50% from the first time it was implemented in Colorado. Many people who were registered in the program graduated from high school. The state department of Criminal Justice reported that in five years, those who went through the program successfully, about half of them got in track and have never been accused of any misconduct. The program must be geared towards the fierce wrongdoers and should comprise of camps, thorough counseling, training courses, and educating in life skills. A research carried out by the Council of State Governments Justice Center (2017) focused on the effects of intermediation as it linked to the rate of recidivism of offenders against those who experienced the traditional law court systems. It discovered that the use of mediation was most effective as it linked to recurrence. Their findings provided that those who had experienced the traditional law system reoffended at about 35% as the people who experienced mediation reoffended at a range of 20% in their first years (Council of State Governments Justice Center, 2017). This research showed that some of the causes of the frequency of recidivism were perhaps linked to their family structure. 

The line of action against any crime is prevention, which is in three levels of delinquency prevention. They include primary prevention model, secondary, and tertiary. The primary prevention model is directed to the general population, which aims at modifying and transforming crime-causing circumstances and factors in social and physical regions that cause crime (Gran & Henry, 2007). The level utilizes corrective and punitive prevention options. The model is geared towards risk factors such as after school and home mentoring programs. The primary model should be supported by the state to guarantee people do not stay vulnerable to crime. The secondary prevention framework is aimed at particular risks towards young adults instead of the whole population. It searches for early identification and intervention in the lives of people’s vulnerable situations. This program, if well in-cooperated in the society, will concentrate more on changing the personal behavior of the young people, their cognitive and behavioral skills, or to modify their learning circumstances for aggression to those likely to be delinquent because of their risk factors. The tertiary prevention model is at parity with reducing recidivism. The model is focused on the offending populace of young adults to prevent further actions of delinquency. It is also called rehabilitation. To avoid delinquent behaviors from occurring, the factor that stimulates those behaviors must be identified and then treated.

Several people have contended that work-focused plans by themselves may not create important declines in recidivism. Work might be essential, but not sufficient for most prisoners. Indeed, numerous programs need to offer mental health therapy, drug abuse management, and help with housing, and other most definite proof of reduced re-offense coming from assessments of drug abuse management programs. Substance treatment plans work in facilitating the transition from prison to the community.

Further studies need to be done to get the information analysed if there is a link between intervention programs and reduced adult and young recidivism. Moreover, such research may consider as to the motives for what offenders have thought of as they do misconduct and what type of conditions they go through are satisfactory for a penalty. It is vital to introduce intervention programs while the offenders are still in custody of police or out of the facility, which would minimize the rate of recidivism. People need to be given positive outlets to foster their self-confidence and self-worth. Positive outlets will provide people with a way of handling their needs. Therefore, research must permit individuals to intercommunicate positions and opinions, thus locating troubles that have offenders engaged in criminality can be studied, and defensive aspects that support the people from delinquency will also be exposed. Offering an open medium where people can discourse their fights and successes will offer them the power that will build up their self-esteem and make positive decisions on the right and wrong things in life. 

In conclusion, if criminal records do not stop companies from seeing former convicts as potential workers, several of those leaving jail are further stalled by their inadequate learning, lack of genuine occupation knowledge, and weak abilities that do not match to those of other employment contenders. The following essay has discussed the history of job training programs for those leaving incarceration, its current status, how it is evolving in America, the policies that govern it, and how the program could move forward to positively change America.  




Cole, G. F., Smith, C. E., & DeJong, C. (2014). Criminal justice in America. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Council of State Governments Justice. (2017). Reducing Recidivism: States Deliver Results. New York: United States of America.

Gran, B., & Henry, W. (2007). Holding private prisons accountable: A socio-legal analysis of “contracting out” prisons. Social Justice, 34(3/4), 173–194.

Reid Mandell, B., & Schram, B. (2020). An introduction to human services: Policy and practice (9th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

Working Conference on Apprenticeship Research and Development, & United States. (1971). Working Conference on Apprenticeship Research and Development: October 5-6, 1971, Office of Research and Development, Manpower Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. Washington, D.C.?: The Office?.




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