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  1. Kolcaba’s theory of comfort


    Define the Kolcaba’s theory of comfort


Subject Nursing Pages 5 Style APA


Comfort Theory


Even though the concept of comfort has been explored, illustrated in a two-dimensional content map, and processed as a holistic outcome, the theory has not been conceptualized as a constructive application in the broader discipline of nursing. However, the theorist, Kolcaba’s, and other scholars have suggested that comfort theory is a fundamental need to all human beings in terms of ease, relief, or transcendence emanating from healthcare situations that many appear stressful to patients. I chose Kolcaba’s of comfort because it can augment health-seeking traits for patients, family members, and medical practitioners. This essay will explain how Kolcaba’s theory of comfort has been helpful for patients with terminal illnesses (cardiovascular diseases), an implementation plan of the theory in a healthcare setting, barriers to effective implementation, and application processes that overcome the suggested barriers.

Theory Description

Kolcaba’s theory of comfort was first brought into light in 1991 when the theorist conducted a concept examination to analyze the literature from various disciplines on comfort (Bergström et al., 2018). Her analysis generated three facets of comforts as well as four frameworks of holistic human experience whereby a taxonomic structure was established as a plan to guide different areas of patient comfort for measurement in practice and assessment in research.

In this theory, specific concepts are arranged in terms of three forms as well as four contexts of comfort. The initial three forms of comfort include transcendence, ease, and relief. In most cases, patients experience a sense of relief when a family member of a medical practitioner meets their personal comfort needs. Respectively, patients become at ease when the apparent circumstances enable them to contented or calm. Also, a comfortable state of transcendence occurs when an individual rises above his or her challenges (Puchi, Paravic-Klijn & Salazar 2018). On the other hand, the four contexts whereby comfort is experienced include; sociocultural, environmental, psychospiritual, and physical. Sociocultural refers to a situation where interpersonal as well as social relationships are met. Environmental comfort is achieved when external surroundings and conditions are favorable to an individual to exist peacefully. Psychospiritual refers to the internal awareness of one’s existence including the purpose and achievements. The physical pertains to bodily sensations as well as homeostatic mechanisms. The three forms of comfort, as well as the four contexts of healthcare, can be assimilated into a hospital’s form of care. Respectively, this ideology of comfort can be applied to different patient cases to demarcate various comfort needs to specific patients.


Kolcaba’s theory of comfort is readily applicable to patients with chronic ailments. When treating patients with chronic ailments especially those with cardiovascular diseases, quiet time intervention is highly regarded as the best form of comfort. The quiet time intervention has an imperative potential for reducing noxious stimuli and establishing opportunities for needed privacy as well as supportive interactions (Disbrow, 2017). Scholars have justified that quiet time can enhance patient outcomes as well as increase consumer satisfaction with acute healthcare services. Both approaches are extremely essential in the contemporary healthcare environment. Other researchers have suggested that quiet time in a muddled, noise cardio-intensive care unit can establish an atmosphere of recuperation.

Despite little research on the quiet time intervention being done in the emergency department, current studies on the same topic suggest that the proposition is highly applicable in the care of cardiac patients. In a physical environment, quiet time can aid in minimizing situations in the cardiac-care setting that possesses a detrimental physical impact on a compromised patient (de Dear, Xiong, Kim & Cao, 2020). Of importance is a patient’s sleep, which is vital for multiple psychological and physiological processes. Various hospital routines as well as procedures and mechanical devices can significantly affect the ability of a patient to get sufficient sleep. Physicians have supported the idea that sleep deprivation correlates to a rising incidence of increased use of medication as well as restraints, confusion, and patient falls.

According to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Noise Abatement and Control in their long-established recommendations, hospital noise levels ought not to exceed 45 decibels. Nonetheless, studies have pointed out that the peak noise levels in hospitals usually exceed 90 decibels, which is the same as noise levels coming from heavy truck traffic. Long-term effects of excessive noise exposure to patients as well as medical practitioners can harm their general health and wellbeing (Disbrow, 2017). In a noisy environment, the chemical epinephrine, as well as other endogenous stimulants, are releases as a way of responding to environmental stimuli, which as a result increases a patient’s blood pressure and heart rate. Prolonged exposure can make such a patient have a cardiac arrest and then die within minutes. Quiet time interventions can hinder the triggering of the sympathetic nervous system that occurs in a noisy environment, interruption of sleep, and bright lights, and the process promotes Kolcaba’s theory of comfort known as “relief.”




Successive implementation of Kolcaba’s theory of comfort will require significant investments of both time and money. These resources will be utilized during the training process of medical practitioners on how to embrace the ideology (Bergström et al., 2018). Researchers have established that despite the effectiveness of the theory many healthcare institutions have not fully embraced it in their surroundings. The reason being, health care professionals have not been trained on its importance.

To implement this strategy in a hospital setting, the management of various healthcare institutions has to first train its staff on the health care needs of both patients and doctors. During the training process, nurses will be taken through intervening variables to understand how the planning process of the intervention could be achieved (de Dear, Xiong, Kim & Cao, 2020). Respectively, the management will have to establish the determining probabilities related to the success of the intervention. Ultimately, the training process will disseminate healthcare-seeking behaviors that will enhance comfort to the patient, family members, and medical practitioners. Under this process, the training will justify institutional integrity that will tie the healthcare-seeking behaviors of the stakeholders to cultivate the aptitude of comfort in the institution.


The major barrier to the successful implementation of Kolcaba’s theory of comfort is sufficient funds to support the project. Owing to the proposed implementation method- training the medical personnel on how to embrace the theory, institutions will require significant funds to support the entire process (Disbrow, 2017). Since medical institutions incur costs that support their operations, adding another project in the process would be detrimental to their normal functionality. However, this barrier could be managed by seeking funds from international organizations, local governments, or other shareholders. The management of these institutions will however be required to justify the short-term and long-term benefits of their proposed plan.


Kolcaba’s theory of comfort has not been fully synthesized in medical institutions because of insufficient study on the benefits of the approach. However, the theorist and other scholars have proved that the theory is essential when offering care to a patient with chronic ailments. For instance, medical professionals have agreed that quiet treatment provides relief to patients with acute cardiovascular illnesses in terms of allowing their physical anatomy to recover from anesthetic medications hence supporting their general health and wellbeing. The best initiative of implementing the comfort theory in medical institutions is through training nurses on its importance and application process. However, successive implementation of the same could be hindered by limited funds. Nonetheless, medical institutions could seek funds from shareholders to support the project.




Bergström, A., Håkansson, Å., Stomberg, M. W., & Bjerså, K. (2018). Comfort theory in practice—Nurse anesthetists’ comfort measures and interventions in a preoperative context. Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing, 33(2), 162-171.

Disbrow, D. K. (2017). Barriers Cardiac Nurses Face in Addressing Psychosocial Issues of Heart Failure Patients.

Puchi, C., Paravic-Klijn, T., & Salazar, A. (2018). The comfort theory as a theoretical framework applied to a clinical case of hospital at home. Holistic nursing practice, 32(5), 228-239.

de Dear, R., Xiong, J., Kim, J., & Cao, B. (2020). A review of adaptive thermal comfort research since 1998. Energy and Buildings, 214, 109893.














Appendix A:

Communication Plan for an Inpatient Unit to Evaluate the Impact of Transformational Leadership Style Compared to Other Leader Styles such as Bureaucratic and Laissez-Faire Leadership in Nurse Engagement, Retention, and Team Member Satisfaction Over the Course of One Year

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