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    • Discuss how the Foundation of Knowledge Model and the science that supports nursing informatics can guide nursing practice, education, leadership, and research.
    • Choose an important informatics term, such as metastructure (e.g., data, information, knowledge, and wisdom), concept (e.g., design or structure), or tool (e.g., computer hardware or software) and discuss its significance within nursing informatics. Explain why you chose this particular term to discuss and why you feel it is important to advanced nursing practice.
    • Discuss the role, responsibility, competencies, and value of the nurse informaticist in the development, application, and integration of healthcare technology.
    • Evaluate the ways quality assurance/improvement and clinical outcome measurements are supported by clinical information systems.
    • Discuss the development of new drugs in the United States as compared to other countries and evaluate the pharmacoeconomic issues that lead to high prescription costs in the United States.
    • There are several drug classifications (e.g., benzodiazepines, ACE inhibitors). Choose a classification and one drug within that classification and discuss the pharmacological aspects of this particular drug. Give examples of how and when this drug is used
    • Discuss the adverse event reporting system for medications, outcomes of these adverse report findings, and changes to practice
    • Discuss medications to treat asthma. What specifically should patients be taught about these medications to prevent adverse side effects?


Subject Nursing Pages 6 Style APA


Nursing Informatics

Question One

The Foundation of Knowledge Model and the science that supports nursing informatics helps to identify potential patients’ problems earlier. For example, the documentation of patient information electronically can enable quick identification of patient status because of the readiness of information. Additionally, nurses can deploy the Model in the quest to create the best plan of action that they can apply in different scenarios. Via the various informatics competencies as well as the competency frameworks of the Model obtained through research, nurse leaders can acquire key informatics competencies and hence a quicker adoption of the different frameworks (Birks et al., 2018).

Question Two

Computer tools, specifically hardware, supports electronic data capture, storage, and processing. It is important in that it increases patients’ information safety. This makes it possible for medical personnel to locate data relating to patients history on a certain medication before prescribing new drugs to patients. There is increased patient information accessibility where instant access to patient records is made easier for medical professionals. Computer hardware was chosen based on the fact that they enable nurses to undertake their mandates and responsibilities with not only greater efficiency but also effectiveness (Lim, Wynaden, & Heslop, 2018). Hardware should be advanced because technology is digitalizing at very high rates in all professional fields.

Question Three

The major role of the nurse informaticist is making sure that the clinician workflow is supported through technology. The responsibilities of nurse informaticists are wide and include those to do with consulting work, implementation of electronic health records (EHRs), the creation and education of others on the adoption of EHRs, and the development of different policies in their organizations. Therefore, it is vital that nurse informaticists develop competencies in their areas of expertise through various opportunities for continuing education. Such competencies include on the use of ICT in the entering, retrieval, and manipulation of data, interpreting the entered data, and combining it with the aim of developing nursing knowledge and theory.

Question Four

Quality-of-care roundtable focuses on the fact that irrespective of the level of caution and careful application of interpretation, there exists various good measures for the quality of care. Some of these include the various internal quality improvements adopted by organizations as well as external monitoring adopted by healthcare facilities. There has been an awakening among policymakers which has resulted in a greater understanding of the effects of changing the existing health policies and those to do with financing and delivery of health services. Moreover, clinical outcome measurements have been applied to confronting the various quality of care issues which include the deficiencies in the use of services.

Question Five

In the United States, there have been various changes in the realm of drug development. However, only a few changes have realized the various complexities encountered in the development of new drugs. For instance, in developing new drugs, promising compounds must be identified, subjected to preclinical testing, and investigated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the US. High prescription costs are as a result of the research that the United States has taken on generic drugs and the pharmaceuticals control of their own drug prices without the intervention of the government. The use of specialty drugs and biologics for sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis are rare leading to high costs (Uyl-de Groot & Löwenberg, 2018).

Question Six

Despite the existence of many drug classifications, Benzodiazepines (clobazam) is mostly applied in the treatment of anxiety as well as other related conditions. The drug operates by affecting the neurotransmitters in the brain as well as the nerves which release chemicals resulting in the communication of the brain with the nearby nerves. An example of such a nerve is the gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA). The mode of application is oral either with or without some dietary supplements as well as in combination with other medications which prevent any arising seizures.

Question Seven

The Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) refers to an electronic database for the storage of information with the aim of supporting the post-marketing safety surveillance programs of the FDA for both the approved drugs and associated products of biological therapy. Notably, healthcare professionals such as the medical doctors, pharmacists, and even nurse practitioners file the various incidences of adverse drug events and medication errors which are stored in the AERS. Harmful outcomes of the drugs are characterized by the rates of mortality and morbidity, changes in body weights, and loss of body functions. Additionally, they can arise in the form of pathological changes experienced at different levels (Kamble & Dale, 2018)

Question Eight

One class of drugs deployed in the treatment of asthma are anti-inflammatory drugs; especially the inhaled steroids. The mechanisms of actions for the anti-inflammatory drugs is that they reduce the production of mucus and any swelling occurring in the airways (Hanna & Winters, 2018). Examples of such drugs include the short-acting bronchodilator inhalers which are effective in relieving of shortness of breath due to asthma as well as associated coughs, chest tightness, and wheezing. Pharmacists should play an instrumental role in educating asthmatic patients especially on the importance of medication adherence.



Birks, M., Ralph, N., Cant, R., Tie, Y. C., & Hillman, E. (2018). Science knowledge needed for nursing practice: A cross-sectional survey of Australian Registered Nurses. Collegian, 25(2), 209-215.

Hanna, M., & Winters, A. (2018). Risk Factors and Preventative Strategies for Pediatric Asthma among Hispanic Populations.

Kamble, K. G., & Dale, A. V. (2018). A review on pharmacognostic and pharmacological approach of different species of hedychium. Indo American journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 5(6), 6030-6036.

Lim, E., Wynaden, D., & Heslop, K. (2018). Changing practice using recovery‐focused care in acute mental health settings to reduce aggression: A qualitative study. International journal of mental health nursing.

Uyl-de Groot, C. A., & Löwenberg, B. (2018). Sustainability and affordability of cancer drugs: a novel pricing model. Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology, 15(7), 405.















Appendix A:

Communication Plan for an Inpatient Unit to Evaluate the Impact of Transformational Leadership Style Compared to Other Leader Styles such as Bureaucratic and Laissez-Faire Leadership in Nurse Engagement, Retention, and Team Member Satisfaction Over the Course of One Year

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