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    Week 7: Systems Design and Workflow
    Consider a clinical process or task that you perform on a frequent basis. Do you do it the same every time? Why do you proceed the way you do? Habit? Protocol? Each day nurses complete certain tasks that are considered routine, but have you ever stopped to reflect on why things are done the way they are? Perhaps you have noticed areas where there is a duplication of efforts or an inefficient use of time. Other tasks might pass seamlessly from person to person. In order to design the most efficient flow of work through an organization, it is useful to understand workflow and the ways it can be structured for the most optimal use of time and resources.

    This week, you examine the concept of workflow and how the design of the workflow impacts the effectiveness and quality of an organization. You analyze a current workflow design and formulate a new workflow design to improve a process.
    Learning Objectives
    Students will:
    Analyze the effect of system design and workflow on health care quality
    Analyze the steps in a current workflow design
    Formulate a new workflow design to improve a process
    Photo Credit: [IAN HOOTON]/[Science Photo Library]/Getty Images
    Learning Resources
    Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.
    Required Readings
    McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. G. (2018). Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge (4th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning.
    Chapter 13, “Workflow and Beyond Meaningful Use”

    This chapter reviews the reasons for conducting workflow analysis and design. The author explains specific workflow analysis and redesign techniques.
    Huser, V., Rasmussen, L. V., Oberg, R., & Starren, J. B. (2011). Implementation of workflow engine technology to deliver basic clinical decision support functionality. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 11(1), 43–61.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

    In this article, the authors describe an implementation of workflow engine technology to support clinical decision making. The article describes some of the pitfalls of implementation, along with successful and future elements.
    Koppel, R., & Kreda, D. A. (2010). Healthcare IT usability and suitability for clinical needs: Challenges of design, workflow, and contractual relations. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 157, 7–14.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

    This article points to many health information technology designs and workflow decisions that limit their value and usage. The authors also examine the structure of the conceptual relationships between HIT vendors and the clinical facilities that purchase HIT.
    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (n.d.b). Workflow assessment for health IT toolkit. Retrieved, June 18, 2012, from http://healthit.ahrq.gov/portal/server.pt/community/health_it_tools_and_resources/919/workflow_assessment_for_health_it_toolkit/27865

    This article supplies a toolkit on the planning, design, implementation, and use of health information technology. The sections of the website provide a definition of workflow, examples of workflow tools, related anecdotes, and research.
    Document: Sample Workflow of Answering a Telephone in an Office (Word document)
    Note: You will use this document to complete this week’s Assignment.
    Required Media
    Laureate Education (Producer). (2012f). System design and workflow. Baltimore, MD: Author.

    Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 7 minutes.

    This video provides an overview of how workflow modeling can be used in a health care setting to target areas for revising current practices and procedures. The video also shows how technology and informatics can be used to improve workflow efficiency and increase the quality of care.

    Accessible player
    The following document gives credit for Laureate-produced media in this course: Credits (PDF)
    Discussion: Understanding Workflow Design
    As you explored last week, the implementation of a new technology can dramatically affect the workflow of an organization. Newly implemented technologies can initially limit the productivity of users as they adjust to their new tools. Such implementations tend to be so significant that they often require workflows to be redesigned in order to achieve improvements in safety and patient outcomes. However, before workflows can be redesigned, they must first be analyzed. This analysis includes each step in completing a certain process. Some systems duplicate efforts or contain unnecessary steps that waste time and money and could even jeopardize patient health care. By reviewing and modifying the workflow, you enable greater productivity. This drive to implement new technologies has elevated the demand for nurses who can perform workflow analysis.
    In this Discussion you explore resources that have been designed to help guide you through the process of workflow assessment.
    To prepare:
    Take a few minutes and peruse the information found in the article “Workflow Assessment for Health IT Toolkit” listed in this week’s Learning Resources.
    As you check out the information located on the different tabs, identify key concepts that you could use to improve a workflow in your own organization and consider how you could use them.
    Go the Research tab and identify and read one article that is of interest to you and relates to your specialty area.


Subject Nursing Pages 4 Style APA


Systems Design and Workflow

                Diagnosis is one of the common nursing processes which nurses carry out frequently. Through system design and workflow, the quality of the process is enhanced which in turn enhances the general health care quality. According to Huser, Rasmussen, Oberg and Starren (2011), system design promotes the quality of healthcare by promoting the process of decision making. Notably, through the workflow processes evident under the system design, distinguished processes which nurses must accomplish when conducting diagnosis are outlined, thus reducing the potential for error development. Moreover, the workflow evident in the system design also provides insight into the interrelationships evident under the processes.

                The current process of nursing diagnosis is composed of three major steps; establishing a diagnostic label, designing etiology, and outlining the characteristics of the clinical condition. The present workflow design fails to meet the stated objective since it overlooks important steps such as examining the patient’s background. Huser et al. (2011) indicates that an effective system design should breakdown the process by guaranteeing that the resources are optimally used for a quality outcome. The fact that the current system design includes only three stages brings out an assumption that several requisite steps are overlooked. Therefore, to improve the diagnosis process, two requisite steps should be included in the process. For instance, examining the background of the patient should be included after the diagnostic label is provided. This makes it possible to understand the health background of the patient before the diagnosis process is carried out. The next step to be included includes informing the patient of the diagnosed health concern. This step should be the final one in the process. The proposed final step shows that the nursing diagnosis process is complete and that the patient is informed of the diagnosed concern.



Huser, V., Rasmussen, L. V., Oberg, R., & Starren, J. B. (2011). Implementation of workflow engine technology to deliver basic clinical decision support functionality. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 11(1), 43–61.











Appendix A:

Communication Plan for an Inpatient Unit to Evaluate the Impact of Transformational Leadership Style Compared to Other Leader Styles such as Bureaucratic and Laissez-Faire Leadership in Nurse Engagement, Retention, and Team Member Satisfaction Over the Course of One Year

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