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      1. QUESTION

      Students will choose one of four options for an individual term paper (maximum body of approx. 3,500 words).

      Option A: Research and analyze two companies competing in the same category- one that genuinely incorporates sustainability marketing into its operations and one that either does not do any sustainability marketing or that only superficially does so. Compare consumer perceptions of their respective brands, and predict the companies relative long-term competitiveness in that category.

      Option B: Forecast the future of sustainability marketing, using specific principles and concrete examples to support your arguments. Will the fields’ future be positive or negative? For whom or for what? And based on whose standards? Recommend practical and constructive changes to the field of sustainability marketing.

      Option C: Reflect on the key themes and principles of sustainability marketing from the course and its associated activities. Describe the most surprising, the most inspirational, and the most challenging aspects of the field of sustainability marketing, in your opinion. How will these insights influence and shape your professional practice?

      Option D: Develop an environmental marketing plan for a real business of your choice.

      Please keep number of sources/references no more than 5, also I have attached my class PPT for your reference.


Subject Business Pages 10 Style APA


The Future of Sustainability Marketing

Option B: Forecast the Future of Sustainability Marketing and Recommend Practical and Constructive Changes to the Field of Sustainability Marketing

The world moves because of production which allows people to engage in different activities every day.  Production and consumption affects the ecosystem in various ways, a situation that prompts the need to conserve and embrace sustainability initiatives. The concept of sustainability marketing remains key in the conservation and proper utility of the resources at our disposal. This paper forecasts the future of sustainability marketing supported by principles and examples. It further recommends practical and constructive changes to the field of sustainability marketing.

Sustainability marketing is a new concept in the marketing and business that endeavors to meet current generation needs without compromising up with the future (Iyer & Walker Reczek, 2017).  It is, therefore, a concept based on social and environmental sustainability to conserve resources for the future generation (Iyer & Walker Reczek, 2017).  Industries and organizations endeavor to deploy marketing principles and techniques to influence behaviors of their target audience and consequently benefit society and individuals. It is not enough to satisfy the current consumer needs and interest of the business without thinking about the future generations. Therefore, this concept considers both societal marketing and strategic planning.

The concept of sustainability marketing was conceptualized in the late 1990’s and continues to evolve over the years. According to Fuller (1999) and Belz and Peatie (2009), the concept of sustainability marketing incorporates ecologically oriented endeavors to satisfy the needs of customers without compromising the health of the ecosystems. It also ‘must be viable’ from a technical feasibility and economic competiveness perspective and ethical in the sense that it endeavors to promote greater social justice and equity. Sustainability marketing also incorporates relationship base as it focuses on management of relationships between businesses and their customers as well as other key stakeholders.

According to Senge, Smith and Kruschwitz (2010), sustainability marketing is the process of creating, communicating and delivering value to the target customers/audience in a way that both human capital and natural are preserved or enhanced throughout. Marketers have to remain transparent to their stakeholders when communicating and stakeholders should be enlisted in value creation

The future of sustainability marketing looks bright as the concept is emerging to be a game changer in the way the industries and organizations are operating.  The level of awareness among the audience has increased over the years. People across the world appreciate the value of green economy because of the negative impacts that climate change brings (Senge, Smith, & Kruschwitz, 2010). Furthermore, the level of consciousness on safeguarding the ecosystem for the sake of the future generation is alive and this has prompted a second thought on the strategies and policies under use.  The current situation whereby organizations and industries are receptive to changes and even taking steps to improve on their production process is a clear indication that there is light at the end of the tunnel.  It points out to a tomorrow that is friendlier and addressing the concerns of the future generations.

 It is also important to appreciate the fact that there exist entities and organizations that are devoted to ensuring respect of the rights of the consumers and those of the sellers. This means that marketing can impact on other businesses in terms of acquisition of competitors, marketing practices that create barriers to entry and unfair competitive marketing practices. These issues face the marketing industry and can easily lead to failure to observe the best standards. However, a movement such as Consumerism that comprises the citizens and government agencies helps to ensure that the rights and powers of buyers in relation to sellers are improved (Senge, Smith, & Kruschwitz, 2010). For instance, the traditional rights of the sellers include introducing any product they want, right to any price as long as there is no discrimination, sending any amount of promotion if not unfair, using product messages as long as is not misleading and to use buying incentive programmes as long as they are not misleading. Likewise, some of the rights of the buyers include the right to buy a product offered for sale, to expect the product to be safe and to perform as claimed (Senge, Smith, & Kruschwitz, 2010).  Furthermore, consumers advocate as well expect the following consumer rights to be adhered to; right to be well informed, to be protected against questionable products to influence products and marketing practices in ways that improve quality of life, and right to consume in a manner that will ensure preservation of world for future generation. It is, therefore, apparent that such agencies roles remain crucial in ensuring sustainability marketing for the future generations.

 Another example of an organization committed towards achieving sustainability marketing is the Environmentalism, an organized movement of citizens and government agencies purposely focusing on protecting and improving people current and future living environment (Senge, Smith, & Kruschwitz, 2010).  Environmentalist are agitating for careful operation and trading especially in the field of marketing to ensure that the gospel of protection and conservation is adhered to. Environmental sustainability as a management approach encompasses development of strategies suitable for both environmental sustainability and profit accrual for the businesses.  It involves preserving the natural environment while marketing sustainability concerns both natural and social environments. Currently, companies have already embraced some form of environmental sustainability strategies. One is pollution prevention whereby they are adopting strategies aimed at reducing and eliminating waste before its creation. The other strategies are product stewardship whereby they minimize environmental impact through the entire life cycle processes (Senge, Smith, & Kruschwitz, 2010).  Others have adopted new clean technology whereby they adopt new sets of environmental skills and capabilities in their technologies. The other strategy is sustainability vision whereby the companies are envisioning creating a strategic framework that would achieve future sustainability. It is therefore, important to acknowledge that environmental issues are vivid in the minds of many people and these policies are being taken serious by many organizations, and the new one. Markets are also taking up the responsibility for sustainable marketing and the future is shining.

One of the sustainable marketing principle that illustrates the positive future of sustainable marketing is consumer oriented marketing. This principle requires companies to view and organize their marketing activities from the consumer’s point of view as opposed to their own view (Senge, Smith, & Kruschwitz, 2010). In the modern days, companies involved in production of goods must consider the tastes and preferences and the views of their customers. Getting to listen to the needs and opinions of the consumers is important in giving companies an added advantage compared to their competitors. Currently, most consumers have become sensitive to the dealings, process, and strategies that companies employ to produce their products and goods. Consumers are also sensitive to the environmental issues and this is pushed to the companies. Customers would associate and support companies that have put in place measures to support green environment and ecosystem at large.   A good example demonstrating efforts underway to ensure application of consumer oriented marketing strategies is championed by organization such as the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD). It has   a coalition of 175 international companies united for a common and share commitment to sustainable development  focusing on three pillars; ecological balance, economic growth and social progress and is leading by formulating policies and best practice that will  contribute to sustainable development solutions (World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD), 2016).

Nowadays, consumer value marketing principle remains important as entities put resources into consumer value to build their marketing investments.  Consumers have become selective and are going for products or goods that assure them value. This has also affected the processes of production and the strategies that companies employ to meet this value. The future of sustainability marketing therefore looks bright with the customers taking center stage in driving and guiding the companies or the producers on their tastes and preferences.

Innovative marketing nowadays illustrates the positive future of sustainability marketing (McDonagh & Prothero, 2014). Companies nowadays have to seek real products and make improvements in their marketing. The level of competition and innovation continuously is growing and companies would always endeavor to attain competitive edge through commitment to satisfy the needs of their customers. This therefore ushers in the quest to offer the most appropriate and recommendable products to their customers.

 Companies have a sense of mission marketing which is driving them to achieve their goals and as well embrace sustainability marketing.   These initiatives are an indication of a future with sustainable marketing (McDonagh & Prothero, 2014).  Many companies have defined their mission in broad social terms as opposed to narrow product terms. This means that companies have become aware of the social impact their products and goods have and therefore, they have to comply with the social standards to remain competitive in their businesses. Having a mission as well means that these companies have become conscious of the need to adopt sustainability approaches in their business, as they must think about the consequences of their current activities on the future generations. It therefore, means that the future of sustainability marketing is promising.

 Societal marketing is yet another very important principle of sustainability marketing that requires companies to make their marketing decisions by putting into consideration consumer wants, company requirement, customer long-term interest and society long-term interests (McDonagh & Prothero, 2014). Most companies are factoring in these issues when making decisions during their operations. The companies are keen to attain consumer confidence and trust and to remain afloat. They, therefore, must tread carefully trying to balance between the various   interest for them to remain competitive in serving or providing their services and goods to their customers.

There are marketing guidelines and business ethical standards that businesses and marketers have to adhere in the course of their promotions.  Marketing norms for marketers such as ‘do not’ harm’ ‘embrace ethical values’, ‘ foster trust in the marketing systems’ among many others are a clear indication of the commitment by the marketers to uphold and foster sustainability marketing (McDonagh & Prothero, 2014). These ethical values include responsibility, honesty, respect, fairness, transparency and citizenship which together work to ensure that the marketers are professional and adhere to sustainable goals. This is a clear indication of a brighter future inters of marketing sustainability.

Quite a number of cases and examples indicate that indeed the future of marketing sustainability is bright.  Individual and company owners and directors have become aware of the need to embrace sustainability approaches and strategies in the course of their doing business to reduce or mitigate the negative impacts they cause on the environment. For instance, Ray Anderson the owner of a flooring company came to realize that his industry was doing harm to the planet. This realization led to radical reorientation of the company towards environmental sustainability with the goal to becoming zero emission and fully sustainable enterprise.   He likened this journey as mountain climbing experience as there are quite a number of points that should be scaled to achieve the ultimate goal. Some of the faces include elimination of waste, emissions, energy saving, material flow, transportation and culture shift in terms of the way the company markets its products and treats its company, customers, suppliers and communities. This is an example of how the future would look like, as people get enlightened they embrace changes to ensure that they cause less harm on the environment.

Other corporate that have embraced sustainability in their corporate strategy and implementation include GE, Wal-mart, Dupont, Alcoa, and Heidi’s Company Botanical Paperwork, and Nike among others. For instance, Nike suffered losses due to allegation of unfair labor practices in 1990s leading it to embark on long process to reinvent its operations to meet sustainability metrics (Senge, Smith, & Kruschwitz, 2010).  It had to integrate sustainability measures through its whole value chain to achieve this, the company had to create an in house sustainability index, partnering with BASF, Dupont, Dow leading to use of more sustainable materials and processes.  In its line of apparel and footwear, the company has managed to reduce product waste by up to 67 percent, cut energy use by 37 percent and reduced solvent use by 80 percent.

Another example is at Wal-mart, which has used its immense influence to green supply chain. The company allowed suppliers to rate their products on sustainability criteria, gathered data on their product life cycle, create a sustainability index for consumers, leading to launch of sustainability strategy in 2005.  The company managed to correct its negative image and reduced costs significantly managing to save and becoming the world’s largest retailer. This is a typical example of how marketing sustainability can take firms and this is the way forward illustrating the bright future.  At once, the President and CEO of the company, Mike Duke, said that customers want low prices but without sacrificing the quality of the products. He added that customers want efficient products that can last longer and perform faster; they also want information about the entire life cycle of the products for them to feel good about buying it. This thinking and realization is continuously acting as a game changer in the way managers and corporations operate (Senge, Smith, & Kruschwitz, 2010). Definitely, the future of marketing sustainability is intact and so promising.

With corporate embracing the concept of marketing sustainability, definitely the field future will be positive. It would be positive in the sense that, the companies and people would be able to embrace healthy and safe modes of production and marketing. The general lifestyles and trends in terms of consumption and behaviors, norms culture would change hence impacting positively on the environment and the health of the people. The future generation would also benefit because they will enjoy living in a conducive environmental for their own sustainability and growth.

The question of for whom and for what in terms of marketing sustainability benefit means that the parties involved, including all stakeholders, customers, company owners, suppliers and  future generations are the targets that will enjoy the changes.   The benefits of the changes are what the stakeholders would benefit. Some of the benefits include good environment, good air, healthy food, improved health among many others (Pantelic, Saka, & Zehetner, 2016).

Various entities and organizations set standards that the companies must adhere to achieve the goals of sustainable marketing. Government agencies, private entities, company terms and conditions provide framework and set standards that every company dealing in production must comply in their course of production. Agencies such as Consumerism and Environmentalist have standards and guideline that sellers and consumers have to comply. Such standards set by such agencies would provide a clear guideline on the way they need to operate and function as they endeavor to comply with the guidelines/standards.

Recommend Practical and Constructive Changes to the Field of Sustainability Marketing.

Even though the world has become aware of the need to embrace sustainable marketing, there are still pockets and countries, industries managers that still lag behind. There are quite a number of practical and constructive changes recommended to the field of sustainability marketing that require adoption and implementation.

For companies to sell more green products, it is recommended that they take note of the various barriers and commit to eradicating the same. One of the barriers is lack of awareness of eco-friendly goods, which leaves many of the consumers vulnerable to bad and unhealthy products (Senge, Smith & Kruschwitz, 2010).  The recommended solution to this challenge is to intensify education of consumers on the existence and the need to purchase ecofriendly goods. This will enlighten the consumers, at the same time intensify the pressure on the production company to tore the line and focus on production of interest to the consumers.

There is also a barrier of negative perceptions of green products amongst some quarters of the society. This barrier is addressed through building better products that meets the health of the consumers. There is also distrust of green claims, higher prices and low availability of green products. These challenges are solved through companies embracing the virtues of honesty offering more products and ensuring that they bring such products to the people to change their perception and ensure that they revert to consumption of healthy products.

Companies and marketing agencies have to understand the concept of social marketing, a process where marketing techniques and principles are used to influence target audience behaviors that also benefits individuals and society (Retie, Burch ell, & Riley, 2012). The companies have to ensure that their products and marketing message improve health, prevent injuries, protect the environment, involve the community and enhance financial well-being of the people. Furthermore, it is highly recommended that social marketer’s understand their role and endeavor to influence the influencers such as media figures, politicians, law enforcement, corporations, school districts, healthcare organizations, and entertainers among many others on the benefit of embracing health food/products. Furthermore, friends, family members, religious leaders, personal healthcare providers, neighbors and Facebook friends –people close to the target influenced should be also influenced to support and embrace healthy production and products.

There is also need to be committed to the goal through writing down the goals, actively getting involved in the processes and helping other view themselves as environmentally concerned. It is also advisable to use prompts; they should be noticeable, self-explanatory and as close as possible to behavior. The goal of using prompts should enable people to remember to act. For instance, when using social platforms such as Facebook. They should provide clear guidelines on how to join and access to specific information of interest.

 Companies can also use social norms to build community support through various campaigns geared at saving the environment. For instance, in a hotel re-use towel campaign; the message to support the same should encourage fellow guests to join in helping to save the environment.  Messages such as 75 percent of guest have supported the initiative which would help to trigger positive energy to conserve and save the environment. Such innovations play a major role is swaying the perception and the whims of the people to pursue healthy and sustainable strategies.

It is also important to make the norms noticeable to the larger audience for them to feel and see the urgency and the need to be part of the bandwagon in salvaging and saving the environment through such initiatives such as recycling and restricting summer water use among other initiatives that protect the ecosystem (Rettie, Burchell, & Riley, 2012). Other ways to achieve the goal and ensure that the gospel of sustainable marketing bear fruit is  use of nonmonetary incentives such as recognition and appreciation of the positive companies or organizations that are protecting and agitating for safety and conservation of  the environment (McDonagh & Prothero, 2014). For example, youth participating in a special sticker or award should be rewarded to help encourage others to get involved in such initiatives.

It is also important that companies consider or put in mind the environment aspect when designing their products. Design to reduce environmental impact through green product designs is therefore the way forward to witness change and embrace sustainability marketing (Rettie, Burchell, & Riley, 2012).  The design should involve consideration of the tools and methods to help understand the need and the impact of sustainability marketing. Products development process to address /reduce these impacts. Companies should also focus on many ways by looking at the bigger picture. It is also important to look at the entire life cycle when designing products to ensure sustainability.

In conclusion, the concept of sustainability marketing has taken up momentum and is transforming the way products and companies are communicating and undertaking production. The future of sustainability marketing is bright and promising.  Consumers around the would have become aware of the need to embrace sustainability and ensure safety and health of their products and goods. This awareness has also increased pressure on the organizations and managers to offer products and services that meet the interest and demands of customers. The urge and commitment to ensure that information is passed to the consumers in the right channels and information of value to them has become a major concern and expectation.   So far, many managers and executive officers for larger corporations have also committed resources and energy towards a sustainable marketing strategies to remain competitive in the industry that they deal in.  Various government agencies and institutions as well as organizations have also been in the forefront to agitate for changes in the way companies engage in their marketing to boost and encourage conservation and preservation of the natural and the human capital for the future generation. Sustainable marketing requires high level of transparency, honesty, respect and concern for the other people to ensure that everyone benefits as well as the future generations. The field as well still requires some changes to ensure that it flourishes and that all companies and industries embrace new and innovative techniques to foster sustainability marketing.  There is need for instance, for companies to train its employees and educate customers on the sustainability issues for them to know what this is all about. It is also noble that companies embrace sustainable development designs in their products to expedite on the topic of sustainability marketing.




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 Fuller, D. A. (1999). Sustainable marketing – Managerial – ecological issues, SAGE        Publications, California, USA.

Iyer, E. S., & Walker Reczek, R. (2017). The Intersection of Sustainability, Marketing, and           Public Policy: Introduction to the Special Section on Sustainability. Journal of Public       Policy & Marketing, 36(2), 246–254. Retrieved from              direct%3dtrue%26db%3dbth%26AN%3d126179091%26site%3deds-live

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Senge, P., Smith, B., & Kruschwitz, N.  (2010). The Necessary Revolution: How individuals and organizations are working together o create a sustainable world. Crown Business; 1    edition

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