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The government of the United States (USG) and its law enforcement were established and developed to serve and protect the citizens of the United States. However, competition and territorial disputes among these agencies have helped to divide instead of bringing them together to keep the homeland safe. No better example of this was the events of September 11, 2001, when the stove piping of information allowed the United States to suffer the worst terrorist attacks in its history. While many may argue that the events on that day were singular, other with no correlation between cooperation, competition, territorial, and safety, the linty of report culmination in the 9/11 report indicated that the factors mentioned led to the systemic failure with tragic results.

Many have pointed to genetics as the starting point in the evolutionary path of cooperation among the human species. According to Raines (2019), being nice made evolutionary sense when we lived in small bands surrounded by relatives because helping them helped our genes survive. And we had a direct incentive to be fair to people who would later reciprocate the kindness (p. 45).

As societies became more complex, the philosophical ideology of the greater good became the dominant ideology in the United States. Societal mechanisms to ensure this ideology remained in place. If permitted, the desire for individual selfishness will dominate and take hold. A state of and break down of the cooperative form of injustice will become the stated result; according to Seabright et al. (2021), an equilibrium is a state of society that, given the motivations and constraints of its members, would tend to persist in the absence of some external disturbance (p. 3).

As previously mentioned, for decades, inter-agency failures and corresponding law enforcement at all levels of government have led to the implantation variety of modalities in the effort to promote a culture of cooperation—the passage of legislative measures like the USA Patriot Act 2001 and the establishment of the Office Director of National Intelligence (ODNI). These measures have allowed for more free-flowing information sharing among agencies. Agencies and departments see each other as data consumers and partners with a shared goal. According to Juarez et al. (2021), inter-agency conflict is consistent with studies that show factors such as inefficient communications pre- and post-event, difficulties accessing support resources between organizations, delay in-hospital treatment, and occasional inter-organizational staff conflict during interfaces (p. 11).

Inter-agency cooperation is vital in the 21st century for host agencies and departments regardless of their overall mission statements and funding sources. The criminal justice system depends on the other feeder systems for incapacity offenders and deviates from those deemed worthy of a second chance. The future of the criminal justice system in the United States in the 21st century is dependent on the associated department’s agencies to progress as force multipliers in the safety of every town, city, and state throughout America.

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