- State which relations, if any, hold between the members of the pairs of lexemes given below: opposition, antonymy, complementarity, converseness, non-binary contrast, hyponymy, co-hyponymy, absolute synonymy, cognitive synonymy, plesionymy, quasi- versions of any of these, para- versions of any of these. If more than one of these relations hold, state all of them. If none of these relations holds between the members of a pair, say so. Consider the lexemes in their most common, literal, meanings. Explain your answers (your explanations will not be graded, but they may help to convince me that you are correct, if I disagree with you). (10 points)
a. brave – cowardly
b. chess – game
c. lake – sea
d. rich – wealthy
e. preposition – omelette
f. heart – liver (organs of the body)
g. money – pocket
h. cup – handle
i. gradable – ungradable (with reference to opposites)
j. owner – possession
- Construct a complete truth table for the following proposition: (p v q) à (r & ~r). Your table must include truth values for all of the component propositions. (5 points)
- Translate the following into predicate logic (every property should be expressed by a separate predicate. (3 points)
a. Some linguist is tall and some linguist is young.
b. Chomsky likes all teachers.
Turn page over à
- Which of the following relations, if any, hold between the members of the following pairs: unilateral entailment, mutual entailment, lexical paraphrase, structural paraphrase, presupposition? If more than one of these relations holds, state all of them. If unilateral entailment holds, state which member of the pair entails which. If presupposition holds, state which member of the pair presupposes which. If none of these relations holds between the members of a pair, say so. Consider all sentences in their literal sense. Explain your answers (your explanations will not be graded, but they may help to convince me that you are correct, if I disagree with you). (7 points)
a. i. John likes Jane
ii. Jane likes John.
b. i. Alan hates tomatoes.
ii. No one should ever eat tomatoes.
c. i. Jim speaks English and French.
ii. Jim speaks more than one language.
d. i. Bill was angry about Jane’s late arrival.
ii. Jane arrived late.
e. i. Mary can run very quickly.
ii. Mary can run very fast.