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An estimated 3.6 percent of U.S. adults had PTSD in the past year and among adults, it was higher for females at 5.2 percent over males at 1.8 percent (National Institute of Mental Health, 2017). The lifetime prevalence of PTSD sits at 6.8 percent (National Institute of Mental Health, 2017). Of adults with PTSD in the past year, the degree of impairment ranged from mild to serious and distributed evenly among adults with PTSD (National Institute of Mental Health, 2017). Around 36.6 percent had serious impairment, 33.1 percent had moderate impairment, and 30.2 percent had mild impairment (National Institute of Mental Health, 2017). In adolescence, the prevalence of PTST was higher for females at 8.0 percent than for males at 2.3 percent (National Institute of Mental Health, 2017). In populations of concern for developing PTSD are that of veterans, especially with recent conflicts and combat (Cohen Veterans Bioscience, 2016). Among deployed troops, there have been over 138,000 new diagnoses of PTSD from 2000 to 2015, as well as 40,000 diagnoses among troops not yet deployed (Cohen Veterans Bioscience, 2016). The incidence of PTSD has increased since 2000, with a peak in 2011 and 2012 (Cohen Veterans Bioscience, 2016). Post-deployment, PTSD prevalence in the U.S. infantry personnel has averaged 10-20 percent, often coexisting with depression, substance misuse, and other concerns (Cohen Veterans Bioscience, 2016). In addition to being prevalent in military veterans, PTSD is also commonly seen in first responders, rape and battery victims, and abused children (Cohen Veterans Bioscience, 2016). Additionally, PTSD may be substantially under diagnosed due to comorbidities and substance abuse, stigma associated with the diagnosis, lack of awareness among young physicians and patients, and a lack of screening tools (Cohen Veterans Bioscience, 2016). In regards to being under diagnosed, maltreated samples are relevant (Grasso et al., 2009). Protective services information is crucial for obtaining complete trauma histories and determining whether to apply PTSD symptoms in maltreated children (Grasso et al., 2009). Without protective services information to supplement parent and child report, the diagnosis of PTSD was missed in a significant proportion of the cases (Grasso et al., 2009). What kinds of things do you think lead to under diagnosis?

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