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  1. The four components of fitness are _________, _______, ______, and _______________.
  2. Aerobic activity increases VO2 max and lowers ______________. Examples of aerobic activity are __________ and _________.
  3. Anaerobic activity consists of ________ of ________ activity, lasting about _ seconds.
  4. Muscle strengthening activities cause muscles to increase in strength/size, known as _________________. It also builds muscle ________.
  5. The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommends minutes of moderate-intensity or __________minutes of vigorous-intensity exercise weekly and performing muscle-strengthening activities at least __ days/week.
  6. Aerobic activity raises heart rate to _ of maximum. As we get older, our max heart rate _____________. (see graph on “Exercise in the aerobic zone” slide for help)
  7. What are some of the benefits of exercise?
  8. Aerobic metabolism is done when __ is present and uses ____, ___, and _ for fuel. It produces __ ATP compared to anaerobic metabolism. Aerobic metabolism is used at rest and for light/moderate activity.
  9. Anaerobic metabolism only uses ____ for fuel. This is done when intensity of activity increases.
  10. In the first few seconds of a workout, ATP is supplied by ATP-creatine phosphate. Since this is limited, while inadequate oxygen is available, ____ metabolism uses blood or muscle ______ to make ATP. Once oxygen delivery has increased enough, we switch to ______ metabolism, which uses both _________ and _____ to make ATP.
  11. Are amino acids a predominant source of fuel for exercise? Yes or no? _
  12. Fatigue or “hitting the wall” occurs when ___ stores are depleted. Athletes can maximize stores by __________for 1-3 days before competition while eating a very _______ carbohydrate diet, consisting of _ g carb/kg of body weight/day.
  13. Describe the macronutrient needs for athletes:
    a. Carbs:
    b. Fat:
    c. Protein: (be specific with recommendations for both strength & endurance athletes!)
  14. The purpose of water is to transport ___ and ___ to muscles, and to remove waste. It also _______________________ so we don’t overheat. Without adequate water, __________ can occur, which reduces performance.
  15. Describe the fluid recommendations for athletes:
    a. Before exercise:
    b. During exercise:
    c. After exercise:
    d. For exercise lasting <1hr: e. For exercise lasting >1hr:
  16. An example of a meal you should consume before exercise is ____________. (contains high carbohydrate, moderate protein and fat, low fiber)
  17. An example of something you can consume during exercise is ___________. (contains carbohydrate and electrolytes)
  18. An example of something you should consume after exercise is ___________. (contains sodium, high carbohydrate, and protein)

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